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Blood & Heart

The blood and the heart

Secondary Polycythemia body attempts to compensate for conditions that have caused the amount of oxygen in the blood to drop.
Polycythemia Vera instance in which diseased marrow (such as from cancer) triggers over production of RBCs
polycythemia state in which the body has an excess of RBCs
erythropoiesis process of producing new erythrocytes that is also maintained through a negative feedback loop
lymphatic tissue found in the spleen, lymph nodes , and thymus gland- supplement blood cell production by producing lymphocytes, a specific type of WBC
red bone marrow found in the ends of long bones and in flat irregular bones such as the sternum, cranial bones, vertebrae, and pelvis- produces all types of blood cells
fibrinolysis process of dissolution of a clot
hemolysis destruction of red blood cells
universal recipient type AB
universal donor blood type O
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia most common form of leukemia in children and has highest cure rate. Treatment incl. chemotherapy, radiation and bone marrow transplants.
Myeloid leukemia involves uncontrolled granulocyte production
lymphocytic leukemia involves rapid proliferation of lymphocytes
chronic leukemia proliferation of relatively mature but still abnormal WBCs, develops more slowly and occurs in most often in older people
Acute Leukemia occurs most commonly in kids- appears suddenly and involves rapid increase of immature WBCs
leukemia a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an extremely high WBC count
hemophilia results from a deficiency of one of the clotting factors. A sex-linked recessive disorder that effects mostly males. People with hemophilia lack ability to form blood clots
treatment of hemophilia treated with infusions of missing clotting factor
pernicious anemia results from lack of vitamin b12
hemolytic anemia when too many RBCs are being destroyed
anemia deficiency of RBCs or hemoglobin. Results from not enough iron in the diet. Another cause is insufficient supply of EPO. usually accompanies kidney disease. Without enough RBCs or hemoglobin, oxygen carrying capacity of blood is diminished.
symptoms of anemia fatigue, pallor, shortness of breath. Blood viscosity is also reduced. (faster heart rate and lower blood pressure )
symptoms of sickle cell disease intense pain, kidney or heart failure, or stroke. Occurs mostly in people of African descent.
Sickle cell disease inherited blood disorder involving hemoglobin.Affected RBCs are stiff rather than flexible,cant fold over like a normal RBC;shape distorted;cells elongate, ends point.The cells are also sticky causing them to clump together and block small blood vessels
treatment for Rh incompatibility All Rh- women who become prego w/ Rh+ baby should be treated with Rh immune globulin(RhoGAM). RhoGAM prevents forming of anti-Rh antibodies,preventing attack on fetus' RBCs
4th step Rh- mom pregnant with Rh+ fetus if the mom later becomes pregnant with another Rh+ baby, anti- Rh antibodies can pass through the placenta even if RBCs cant, when they do,they attack fetal RBCs,causing agglutination & hemolysis.
erythroblastosis fetalis when an infant develops a severe hemolytic anemia
3rd step Rh- mom pregnant with Rh+ fetus mother's body responds by forming anti- Rh antibodies against this foreign substance.
2nd step Rh- mom pregnant with Rh+ fetus However, during delivery (or miscarriage) the fetus' blood often mixes with that of the mother, thus introducing Rh antigens into the mother's bloodstream.
1st step Rh- mom pregnant with Rh+ fetus Because maternal and fetal blood doesnt mix, first pregnancy with an Rh+ fetus will proceed normally
3rd step when Rh- person receives transfusion from a person with Rh+ blood difficulty arises if recipient encounters Rh antigen again,such as through a subsequent infusion of Rh+ blood. if that occurs, anti-Rh antibodies that formed during 1st transfusion will attack the Rh antigen in the donor blood, causing agglutination
2nd step when Rh- person receives transfusion from a person with Rh+ blood to protect itself, the body develops antibodies against the Rh antigen (anti- Rh antibodies)
1st step when Rh- person receives transfusion from a person with Rh+ blood in the case of transfusion, if a person with Rh- blood receives a transfusion of Rh+ blood, recipients body interprets the Rh antigen as something foreign
Blood type O Antibodies type o blood has both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
Blood type AB Antibodies type AB blood has no antibodies
Blood type B Antibodies type B blood has anti-A antibodies
Blood type A Antibodies Type A blood has anti-B antibodies
antibodies blood plasma carries these against the antigens of the other blood types
antigen protein on the surface of each red blood cell
Blood type O antigens type O blood have neither antigen
Blood type AB antigens type AB blood have both A and B antigens
Blood type B antigens type B blood have the B antigen
Blood type A antigens type A blood have the A antigen on their RBCs
prothombrin activator end result of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways
hemostasis stopping flow of blood. 1st event; vasuclar spasm, formation of a platelet plug and formation of a blood clot
platelets express internal membranes proteins & release adhesive proteins, coagulation& growth factors, play an active role in inflammatory & proliferative events as well as role in tissue remodeling & wound healing
role of platelets in hemostasis 1st through adhesive & cohesive functions that lead to formation of a hemostatic plug 2nd - can activate coagulation mechanisms, possess important secretory functions
sticky platelets stick to the vessel wall and to each other, forming a mass of platelets called a platelet plug
macrophage aggressive phagocytic cells that ingest bacteria, cellular debris and cancerous cells.
function of monocytes highly phagocytic and can engulf large bacteria and viral infected cells.
characteristics of monocytes largest of the WBCs
monocytes largest and most long-lived of WBCs; highly phagocytic
structure of RBC normal RBC is shaped like a disc with a sunken center. This shape gives cell large surface area through which oxygen and carbon dioxide readily diffuse
WBC white blood cell also known as leukocytes. body's line of defense against invasion by infectious pathogens. All WBCs contain a nucleus. Body contains 5 types of WBCs
RBC short for red blood cells, cells that carry oxygen and carbon dioxide through the blood. RBC also stands for red cell count , number of red blood cells in a given volume of blood
CBC most commonly performed blood test (complete blood count)provides info about all the formed elements of the blood; RBCs (incll,hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocytes) WBCs (incl a differential) and platelets
t-pA tissue plasminogen activator , one of the substances that stimulates the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin-can be admin, as a drug often given to dissolve clots causing strokes & heart attacks
coagulation blood clotting
hemoglobin iron-containing pigment of red blood cells that carries oxygen
function of RBC charged with delivering oxygen to cells and removing carbon dioxide and are critical to survival. Blood contains more RBCs than any other formed element.
hematocrit percentage of red blood cells in a sample of blood
buffy coat narrow-buff colored band just underneath the plasma formed by WBCs and platelets. constitute 1% or less of blood volume
serum plasma without the clotting proteins (which occurs when blood is allowed to clot and the solid portion is removed )
Albumin main protein contained in plasma
plasma proteins play roles in blood clotting, immune system and regulation of fluid volume
plasma main component is water. also contains proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, hormones and gases
formed elements include cells and cell fragments, makes up 45% of blood. Specific blood cells include erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC) leukocytes (WBCs) and platelets
plasma clear extracellular matrix of liquid connective tissue. Accounts for 55% of blood.
embolus when a piece of the clot breaks off and circulates through the bloodstream
thrombus blood clot, final product of blood coagulation, step in hemostasis. an unwanted blood clot inside of a vessel.
EPO erythropoietin- hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of erythrocytes
plasma clear extracellular matrix of blood
eosinophils white blood cells that protect against parasites, also involved in allergic reactions
function of neutrophils mainly mobile, quickly migrate out of blodd vessels and into tissue spaces,, where they engulf and digest foreign materials. worn out neutrophils left at the site of infection form main component of pus
neutrophils most abundant of the white blood cells; highly mobile
granulocytes contain granules in the cytoplasm, also contain a single multilobular nucleus
functions of WBCs body's line of defense against invasion by infectious pathogens
oxyhemoglobins one hermoglobin united with four molecules of oxygen
heme iron-containing molecule thats bound to each globin
globins four ribbon-like protein chains that make up hemoglobins
hemoglobins fills over 1/3 of the interior of a RBC and is a red pigment that gives blood its color
RBCs lose almost all of their organelles during development because they lack a nucleus and DNA they cant replace themselves.
cytoskeleton of rbcs contains stretchable fibers that make it flexible, allowing it to fold and stretchas it squeezes through tiny capillaries when cell emerges through a narrow vessel it springs back to its original shape
characteristics of neutrophils nucleus of young neutrophil looks like a band of a stab; sometimes called band or stab cells
characteristics of neutrophils also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) because the shape of nucleus varies between neutrophils
function of eosinophils Eosinophils are involved in allergic reactions; they also kill parasites
characteristics of eosinophils while few exist in the bloodstream, eosinophils are numerous in the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts
basophils fewest of WBCs; secretes heparin
characteristics of basophils basophils possess little or no phagocytic ability
function of basophils secrete heparin, which prevents clotting in infected areas so WBCs can enter, also secretes histamine, substance that causes blood vessels to leak, which attracts WBCs
agranulocytes lack cytoplasmic granules ; nuclei also lack lobes
lymphocytes second most numerous of WBCs; responsible for long- term immunity
characteristics of lymphocytes smallest of the WBCs
function of lymphocytes responsible for long term immunity . There are 2 types
T lymphocytes directly attack an infected or cancerous cell
B lymphocytes produce antibodies against specific antigens
Complete Blood Count Measure volume of all blood components, measures blood components that are out of range
Differential WBC count Count various forms of WBC to assess for infections and manufacture of WBC's.
Hematocrit Counting the % of a blood sample that is composed of RBC's -diagnoses anemia
What are the causes and symptoms of sickle cell anemia? RBC's contain an abnormal kind of hemoglobin, sickle cells rupture easily, prolonged oxygen reduction may eventually cause extensive tissue damage
What are the causes and symptoms of hemophilia? inherited deficiency of clotting in which bleeding may occur spontaneously or after only minor trauma symptoms: intramuscular hemorrhaging, nosebleeds, blood in the urine, and hemorrhages in joints that produce pain and tissue damage
What are the causes and symptoms of leukemia? accumulation of either mature or immature leukocytes because they don't die at the end of their normal life span
Reticulocyte counting the volume of reticulocytes in a sample of blood -measures rate of erythropoesis
What happens in an incompatible blood transfusion? antibodies in the recipient's plasma bind to the antigens on the donated RBC's and cause hemolysis and release hemoglobin into the plasma
What makes one blood group different from another? the presence or absence of various isoantigens
How is type A blood different from type B? RBC's that only have antigen A are Type A RBC's that only have antigen B are Type B
How is type AB blood different from Types A or B? f you have both A and B antigens rather than just one
What does an anti-A antibody do? reacts with antigen A
What does an anti-B antibody do? reacts with antigen B
Who has an anti-A antibody? Who does not? has=Type B not=Type A, AB, and O
Who had an anti-B antibody? Who does not? has=Type A not=Type B, AB, and O
How does platelet plug formation aid in hemostasis? platelets' characteristics change drastically and they quickly come together to form a platelet plug that helps fill the gap in the injured blood vessel wall
Role of B, T, and natural killer cells B cells- develop into plasma cells and produce antibodies that help destroy bacteria T cells- attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells, and some bacteria Natural killer cells- attack infectious microbes and tumor cells
treatment for occluded (already closed) coronary arteries stent, CABG, angioplasty, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers
amygdale *two almond shaped areas of brain that are key players in the formation and storage of memories associated with emotion.
amygdale stimulation causes it to send impulses to the autonomic nervous system
ventricular fibrillation electrical signals arising from diff. regions of myocardium,causes heart to quiver rather than contract.fibrillating heart cant pump blood, cardiac output plummets and arrest may follow. req. immediate defibrillation
atrial flutter when an ectopic focus in an atria fires rapidly, causing atria to contract between 200 and 400 times per minute.
arrhythmia results when part of conduction pathway is injured; irregular heartbeat
ischemia lack of blood flow leading to lack of oxygen in an area of the myocardium
infarction tissue death (necrosis) caused by a local lack of oxygen, due to an obstruction of the tissues blood supply.
angina chest pain or discomfort that usually occurs with stress. also due to poor blood flow through the blood vessels in the heart
echocardiogram test that uses sound waves to create the pictures of the heart. does not expose you to radiation
heart murmurs abnormal sounds during your heartbeat cycle made by turbulent blood in or near your heart. can be heard with a stethoscope
valvular stenosis condition in which valves been narrowed. also forces heart to work harder causing it to strain to pump blood through narrowed opening
valvular insufficiency allows blood to leak backward into the chamber from which it was just pumped
tachycardia persistent resting heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute (bpm)
bradycardia persistent pulse rate slower than 60 bpm commonly occurs during sleep or in athletes
diastole relaxation
systole contraction
T wave represents ventricular repolarization
ST segment represents the end of ventricular depolarization and beginning of ventricular repolarization
QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization; the spread of electrical impulses throughout the ventricles
PR interval represents the time it takes for the cardiac impulse to travel from the atria to the ventricles
P Wave represents atrial depolarization; transmission of electrical impulses from SA node through the atria. This occurs right before atria contract.
electrocardiogram record of the electrical currents in the heart. an ECG that appears normal is called normal sinus rhythm meaning that the impulse originates in SA node.
coronary sinus where most cardiac veins empty, large transverse vein on hearts posterior which returns blood to right atrium (exception is anterior cardiac veins, which empty directly into right atrium)
left coronary artery branches into anterior descending & circumflex arteries supplies blood to left atrium, most of left ventricle & most of the interventricular septum
right coronary artery supplies blood to right atrium, part of left atrium, most of right ventricle & inferior part of the left ventricle
coronary circulation keeps heart well supplied with oxygenated blood Coronary arteries deliver oxygenated blood to myocardium, while cardiac veins collect deoxygenated blood
2 main coronary arteries right and left arise from ascending aorta and serve as principle routes for supplying blood to myocardium
mitral area 5th intercostals space, left midclavicular line
tricuspid area 4th (or 5th) intercostals space, left sternal border
pulmonic area second intercostals space, left sternal border
aortic area second intercostals space, right sternal border
interatrial septum common wall of myocardium that separates right and left atria
atria serve primarily as reservoirs,receiving blood from body or lungs. move blood only a short distance from atria to ventricles- they dont generate much force and walls are not very thick
great vessels several large vessels that serve to transport blood to and from the heart; incl. superior and inferior vena, pulmonary artery, 4 pulmonary veins and aorta
epicardium consists of a thin layer of squamous epithelial cells, covers the hearts surface
myocardium composed of cardiac muscle, forms the middle layer. Thickest of the 3 layers and performs the work of the heart
endocardium lines the hearts chambers,covers the valves, cont. into vessels, consists of a thin layer of squamous epithelial cells. this smooth tissue helps prevent clots from forming
pericardial cavity located between parietal and visceral layers. contains a small amount of serous fluid, which helps prevent friction as the heart beats
visceral layer covers the hearts surface
parietal layer lines inside of the fibrous pericardium
serous pericardium covers hearts surface and has two layers
fibrous pericardium loose- fitting sac of strong connective tissue- outermost layer of pericardium
pericardium double walled sac surrounding heart. anchored by ligaments and tissues to surrounding structures
apex point of maximum impulse, where strongest beat can be felt or heard
base where the great vessels enter and leave the heart
angioplasty if a narrowed or blocked coronary artery is found, a balloon's inflated briefly to open the artery
coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) recommended when a patient has had a mild MI, or is at risk for having an MI. Also referred to as open heart surgery-sternum is split, chest is opened. hearts stopped for surgery but patients kept alive using a heart-lung machine
incompetent heart valve that fails to prevent the back-flow of blood during contraction
congestive heart failure (CHF) results when either ventricle fails to pump blood effectively, can occur because ventricle is weakened from myocardial infarction
premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) may occur as a single beat or in bursts of several beats-results from a firing of an ectopic focus in ventricles, may indicate a serious underlying cond. ;more benign causes of PVCs incl; lack of sleep, caffeine or emotional stress
necrosis cell death due to interruption in blood supply
symptoms of myocardial infarction men:commonly experience chest pain or pressure, discomfort in upper body, shortness of breath, nausea, profuse sweating or anxiety. Women: sudden extreme fatigue, abdominal pain ("heartburn"_ dizziness or weakness
myocardial infarction (MI) blood flow is completely blocked by a blood clot or fatty deposit resulting in death of myocardial cells in area fed by artery. once cells die produces area of necrosis
mediastinum space between the lungs and beneath the sternum
aortic valve prevents backflow from aorta to left ventricle
pulmonary valve prevents back flow from pulmonary artery to right ventricle
semilunar valves regulate flow between the ventricles and the great arteries; 2 semilunar valves
cusps or leaflets `two or three flaps of tissues that form valves
the heart valves ensures that blood moves in a forward direction through the heart
interventricular septum separates right and left ventricles
ventricles serve as pumps,rcving. blood from atria & then pumping it either to lungs (R) or body (L) must generate more force than atria.walls are thicker and L walls thicker than R since left ventricle must generate enough force to push blood throughout the body
Pathway of Blood Through the Heart superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lung capillaries, pulmonary vein, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aorta
Created by: marys210



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