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P1 PHAR 7456

Physiology - Neurophysiology Exam 04 Part 04

gathers sound waves. also helps determine location of sounds in vertical space pinna (auricle)
conducts sound waves to tympanic membrane external auditory canal
vibrates (moves inward and back) at the frequency of the sound wave, with the magnitude of movement related to loudness. conducts sound waves to the middle ear, and converts sound energy to mechanical displacements tympanic membrane (cardum)
Middle ear consists of these 3 small bones: malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup)
stiff and narrow, sensitive to high frequency base
floppy and wide, sensitive to low frequency apex
ear wax, fluid, perforation of tympanic membrane, ostosclerosis conductive hearing loss (external or middle ear)
noise, drugs, presbycusis, tumors sensorineural hearing loss (inner ear)
ototoxicity hearing loss associated with drugs
ringing in ears, or perception of sound w/o stimulus. this can be caused by a # of CNS deficits, not just auditory problems tinnitus
conscious and unconscious sense of posture and balance by monitoring head movements proprioception
adjust muscular contraction to maintain posture and balance motor control
adjust eye movements so that visual target remains on retina in response to head movements vestibuloocular reflex
each canal has a bulge called? ampulla
a sheet of cells within the ampulla contains hair cells similar to those in the cochlea crista
the cilia of these hair cells, similar to the macula in the utricle and saccule, contain one? along with other shorter? kinocilium and stereocilia
the cilia project into a gelatinous mass called? that extends across the ampulla cupola
moves the eye laterally, toward the ear (abduction) lateral rectus CNVI
moves the eye medially, toward the nose (adduction) medial rectus CNIII
eye move together conjugate eye movements
fast movement of the eye from one fixation point to another saccades
slow movements that track a target across the visual field smooth pursuit
this the reflex that maintains a visual image on the retina during head turning. it does by automatically adjusting eye postion for the movement of the head. thus, if the head turns toward left, eyes move toward right vestibuloocular reflex
illusion of movement, typically spinning vertigo
excess endolymph produces excessive force on the hair cells. result can be deafness, tinnitus, and vertigo meniere's disease
often caused by a mismatch b/w vestibular signals motion sickness
attached to the basilar membrane is ? which are the receptor cells for hearing? hair cells
at the ends of hair cells are? that attach to the tectorial membrane stereocilia
what projects from the edge of the cochlea? tectorial membrane
the malleus is attached to the ? tympanic membrane
the stapes is attached to the ? oval window
what connects the malleus and the stapes? incus
has a high concentration of Na+ and low conc of K+ perilymph
has a high conc of K+ and low conc. of Na+ endolymph
also contains K+ channels and tip links that connect stereocilia in a given hair cell? stereocilia
stereocilia in a vertical position, have enough stress that the ? some of the K+ channels are still open
b/c of high K+ in the endolymph what happens? K+ moves into cell and depolarizes it
in the neutral position the hair cells are slightly? depolarized
if the stereocilia bend toward the tallest stereocilia, tension of tip lengths is enhanced causing? more K+ channels open and depolarization happens
if the stereocilia bend toward the shortest stereocilia, less tension of tip lengths, what happens? K+ channels close causing hyperpolarization
the ? of sound is mainly encoded by which neurons are excited frequency
? is coded by the frequency of action potentials and number of neurons activated by sound loudness
horizontal side to side localization superior olivary nucleus
vertical up and down localization pinna
the otoliths are composed of crystals of? calcium carbonate
otolith organs contain? utricle and saccule
conscious and unconscious sense of posture and balance by monitoring head movements proprioception
adjust muscular contraction to maintain posture and balance motor control
adjust eye movements so that visual target remains on retina in response to head movements vestibuloocular reflex
movement of cilia toward the kinocilium, hair cell? depolarizes
movement of cilia away from kinocilium the hair cell? hyperpolarizes
both structures of the otolith organs contain this sensor epithelium called? macula
the cilia of hair cells contain one long cilium with a bulbous end that is called? kinocilium
the cilia of hair cells also contain multiple? stereocilia
all cilia project into gelatinous substance which contains? otoliths
Created by: oupharm2012