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AP Euro Final 1

The Reformation broke out first in the cities of Switzerland and Germany
Which of these people provided strong support for the Reformation guilds and landowners
Luther’s impulse to reform church doctrine focused on salvation
The Reformation in Zurich was led by Ulrich Zwingli
In what city did John Calvin make his name? Geneva
Lutheranism was introduced into Denmark by Christian III
The Peace of Augsburg recognized in law what had already been established in practice, which was that the ruler of a land would determine the religion in his territory.
What meeting did Charles V call in which Protestant and Catholic representatives addressed the growing religious divisions within the empire in the wake of the Reformation’s success? The Diet of Augsburg
The Act of Succession made Anne’s children the legit heir to the throne
The Book of Common Prayer was imposed in all English churches by the Act of Uniformity
William Tyndale is known for being the man who translated New Testament into English
The Roman Catholic Church recognized the need for reform and met at the Council of Trent
The new Protestant schools and universities of the 1500s were most likely to teach the ideas of humanism.
Scholastic dialectic were promoted and taught by the supporters of the Counterreformation
What advantage did an indulgence grant the buyer? release from time in purgatory
Indulgences were originally given to Crusaders because... they could not complete their penance because they had fallen in battle.
Frederick the Wise protected Luther because Luther was under his jurisdiction
Anabaptists desired more radical reform than Luther desired
Who did John Knox target in his work, First Blast of the Trumpet against the Terrible Regiment of Women? Mary I of England or Mary Stuart
What sparked the first wave of Protestant persecution in France? The capture of the French king Francis I at the Battle of Pavia
Passed by Queen Elizabeth I, which of the following was a revision of Thomas Cranmer’s works that made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England Thirty-Nine Articles
The term “ecclesiastical reservation” refers to the attempt to maintain the status quo cong lands held by Catholics and Protestants
The Battle of Breitenfeld in 1630 marked a turning point in the Thirty Years’ War. Who won the battle? The Swedish
The Treaty of Cateau-cambresis ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars
What were the original goals of Cardinal Granvelle when he led the special council of state in the Netherlands? break down local autonomy and build a central royal government directed from Madrid
Following the weakening of Spain, which nation dominated Europe in the early 17th century? France
The Black Death refers to… a virulent plague that struck 14th century Europe.
The Black Death was preceded by… years of famine that weakened the populace.
Among the social and economic consequences of the bubonic plague was… a shrunken labor supply.
What social group suffered the greatest decline in power as a result of the Black Death? Landowners.
The plague barely touched areas away from major trade routes such as… Russia
Which of the following was thought by contemporaries to have caused the Black Death? The Jewish community
Peasant revolts in the period of the Black Death were triggered by… attempts to reimpose pre-1340’s conditions.
What two traditional “containers” of monarchy were put on the defensive after the Black Death? Landed nobility and the church
Which of these provoked the Hundred Years’ War? An English claim to the French throne
Ultimately, the Hundred Years’ War was about… national sovereignty
THe primary reason for early French failure in the Hundred Years’ War was… internal disunity
The use of the --------- gave the English the tactical advantage in the war. longbow
The burden of the Hundred Years’ War fell mostly on who? peasants
THe Treaty of Troyes in 1420 disinherited the legitimate heir to the French throne and proclaimed ----- the successor to the French King Charles VI. Henry V
Joan of Arc was executed on May 30, 1431 for the crime of… heresy
Boniface VIII found himself locked in a struggle over the limits of papal authority with… Philip the Fair
The price of papacy’s greater centralization of authority was… declining popular support
The papal bull Unam Sanctam declared that… temporal authority was subject to the spiritual power of the Church
Defender of Peace, written by Marsilius of Padua, depicted the pope as… subordinate to secular rulers
Which of the following was recognized by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges? The right of the French to regulate ecclesiastical appointments and taxation
Which of the following religious movements was most successful at assailing the late medieval church in England? Lollards
What finally resolved the Great Schism? The Council of Constance
One of the most extreme reaction to the spreading plague was processions of ------, religious fanatics who themselves in ritual penance. flagellants
The Black Death is estimated to have killed at least ----- million people in Europe. 24-25
The ----- was a French tax, levied directly on the peasantry. taille
In 1309, Clement V moved the papal court to -----, an imperial city on the southeastern border of France. avignon
------ is the teaching that the efficacy of the church’s sacraments did not only lie in their true performance, but also depended on the moral character of the clergy who administered them. Donatism
Advocates of the ------- sought to fashion a church in which a representative council could effectively regulate the actions of the pope. conciliarist movement
Which of the following cities played a key role in the trade between EUrope and the Near East? Venice
Medieval Europe was a feudal society that had a(n)…. agricultural economy and was dominated by the church
Which of the following comprised Florence’s popolo grosso in the Renaissance? Capitalists and bankers
What occurred in 1378 as a result of the unbearable conditions for those at the bottom of society and the disruption caused by the Black Death? Ciompi Revolt
Cosimo de Medici brought stability to which city after his rise to power in 1434? Florence
The FIrst humanists were…. orators and poets
Which of the following was the most important intellectual recovery made during the Italian Renaissance? Greek studies
Who is considered the “father of Renaissance painting?” Giotto
The term “Machiavellian” has become synonymous with ruthless political expediency
The Habsburg-Valois Wars were fought between France and Spain
A new alliance between monarchs and ------- helped break the bonds of feudal society. townspeople
One way in which the northern humanist Desiderius Erasmus gained fame as a religious reformer was by….. editing the words of the Church fathers.
Humanism prepared the way for Protestant reforms in…. England, France, and Germany.
Columbus thought his first landfall was…. Japan.
By the time of the Spanish conquest, the Aztecs ruled almost all of…. Central Mexico.
The ----- of the West Indies and Brazil became the major center or black slavery in the mid-16th century. Sugar Plantations
Endemic warfare between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor assisted the growth of Italian city states.
Social strife and competition for political power became so intense within the cities that most evolved into despotisms.
The ------- greatly helped reduce the need to go to war and allowed increased control over the enemy. art of diplomacy
The political alliance known as the Treaty of Lodi… brought Milan and Naples into alliance with Florence.
What did Pope Alexander VI hope to gain by securing a friendship with the French king? A piece of land in France where his son Cesare Borgia could live.
Which of the following expresses a viewpoint held by Machiavelli? Italian political unity and independence were ends that justified the means.
What caused the secure government of France created by Louis XI to become a defeated nation under his successors? Bad foreign policy.
The Inquisition was a key national agency established in 1479 for the purpose of… monitoring the activity of converted Jews and Muslims in Spain.
The Portuguese exploration of the African coast started out as a search for gold and slaves, but by the century’s end it has established… a sea route around Africa to Asia’s spice markets.
Based on the “Renaissance Garden” which of the following is the most accurate? A garden was a source for food and medicine, and a space of social and religious significance.
Ludovico of Milan’s fatal mistake was that he…. appealed to the French for help.
Because despots could not count on the loyalty of the divided populace, they operated through mercenary armies obtained through military brokers known as… condottieri.
------ was the scholarly study of the Latin and Greek classics of the ancient Church fathers, both for its own sake and in the hope of reviving respected ancient norms and values. Studias humanitas
------ was the “Father of humanists.” Petrarch
The appeal of ------- lay in its flattering view of human nature, which distinguished between an eternal sphere of being and the perishable world in which humans actually lived. platonism
-------- is a reaction to the simplicity of the High Renaissance art and made room for the strange and the abnormal, giving freer reign to the individual perceptions and feelings of the artist. mannerism
Spanish colonial born in Spanish were known as -------, as opposed to the American-born. peninsulares
A formal grant of the right to the labor of a specific number of Indians is known as the ------. encomienda
The --------- is a device, often harsh, that required adult male Indians to devote a certain number of days of labor annually to Spanish economic enterprises. repartamiento
-------- was the Dominican preacher who convinced Florentines to allow King Charles VIII of France to enter Florence without resistance. Savonarola
--------- is the English humanist who wrote Utopia. St. Thomas Moore
Created by: swimmingninja42