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AP1-Chapter 13

Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes

where does the spinal cord end in an adult normally? between vertebrae L1 and L2
where does the spinal cord end in an infant? around L3
supplies nerves of shoulders and upper limbs cervical enlargement
supplies nerves of pelvis and lower limbs lumbar enlargement
distal end: thin, conical spinal cord below the lumber enlargement conus medullaris
distal end: thin thread of fibrous tissue at the end of the conus medullaris; attaches to the coccygeal ligament filum terminale
distal end: nerve roots extending below the conus medullaris (horse tail) cauda equina
contains axons of motor neurons ventral root
contains axons of sensory neurons dorsal root
contains cell bodies of sensory neurons dorsal root ganglia
created when a dorsal and ventral root join spinal nerves
these protect the spinal cord, carry blood supply and are continuous with cranial meninges spinal meninges
can be both viral or bacterial; infection of the meninges meningitis
3 meningeal layers: outer layer of spinal cord (TOUGH MOTHER) dura mater
3 meningeal layers: middle layer arachnoid mater
3 meningeal layers: inner layer pia mater
between the spinal dura mater and walls of vertebral canal; anesthetic injection site epidural space
between the arachnoid mater and dura mater subdural space
between the arachnoid mater and pia mater; contains arachnoid trabeculae and is filled with CSF subarachnoid space
what is CSF? cerebrospinal fluid
subarachnoid space is filled with what? CSF
withdrawal of CSF spinal tap
stabilizes movement and extends from pia to dura paired denticulate ligaments
these are found in subarachnoid space blood vessels
superficial; both myelinated and unmyelinated axons white matter
surround central canal of spinal cord; has projections (gray horns) gray matter
functional group of cell body nuclei
dorsal (posterior); connects to receptors sensory nuclei
ventral (anterior); connects to effectors motor nuclei
gray horns: somatic and visceral sensory nuclei posterior gray horn
gray horns: somatic motor nuclei anterior gray horn
gray horns: thoracic and lumbar segments; visceral motor nuclei lateral gray horn
3 connective tissue layers: outer layer; dense network of collagen fibers EPIneurium
3 connective tissue layers: middle layer; surrounds fascicles PERIneurium
3 connective tissue layers: inner layer; surrounds individual axons ENDOneurium
bilateral region of the skin; monitored by specific pair of spinal nerves dermatomes
regional loss of sensory or motor function; due to trauma or compression peripheral neuropathy
complex networks of fibers formed from blended fibers of ventral rami of spinal nerves nerve plexuses
4 major plexuses? (CBLS) cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral
spinal nerves C1-C5; controls muscles of the neck cervical plexus
major nerve of C3-C5 that controls the diaphragm phrenic nerve
spinal nerves C5-T1; controls pectoral girdle and upper limbs brachial plexus
controls pelvic girdle and lower limb lumbar and sacral plexuses
spinal nerves T12-L4 lumbar plexus
spinal nerves L4-S4 sacral plexus
major nerves of sacral plexus pudendal and sciatic
penis related nerve pudendal nerve
nerve that runs from buttock region all the way down to the toes; about a meter long; composed of 2 parts sciatic nerve
2 parts of the sciatic nerve fibular nerve and tibial nerve
automatic responses coordinated within the spinal cord; composed of interconnections of sensory, motor, and interneurons reflexes
development of reflexes: basic neural reflexes one is born with; formed before birth innate reflexes
development of reflexes: rapid and automatic; learned motor patterns acquired reflexes
response: involuntary control of nervous system somatic reflexes
response: control systems other than muscular system visceral (autonomic reflexes)
complexity: sensory neurons synapses directly onto motor neuron monosynaptic reflex
complexity: when there is at least one interneuron between sensory and motor neurons polysynaptic reflex
occurs in spinal cord spinal reflexes
occurs in bran cranial reflexes
the only example of a monosynaptic reflex stretch reflex (patella "jumping" when tapped)
stretch reflex that helps maintain balance and posture postural reflex
produce either EPSPs or IPSPs; have interneurons polysynaptic reflexes
examples of polysynaptic reflexes tendon reflex, withdrawal (flexor) reflex, cross extensor reflex
prevents muscle from developing too much tension or from tearing or breaking tendons tendon reflex
moving the body part away from a stimulus flexor (withdrawal) reflex
for the flexor reflex to work, what must happen? reciprocal inhabitation-stretch of flexor permitted when the extensor is inhibited
reflex arcs: occurs on the same side of the body as the stimulus ipsilateral reflex arc
reflex arcs: occurs on the opposite side of the body from the stimulus crossed-extensor reflexes
reflex behaviors are ___________ automatic
reinforcement of spinal reflexes reinforcement; stimulates excitatory neurons; creates EPSPs; facilitate neurons
inhabitation of spinal relfexes inhibition; stimulates inhibitory neurons; creates IPSPs; suppress neurons
may be used to indicate CNS damage in adults; opposite affect of infants babinski relfex
Created by: Lacey1



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