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Ch. 14

What killed one-third of the European population? The Bubonic Plague
What were the taxes the Church collected called? Tithes
What were two out of the three problems the church had? 1. Some priests were nearly illiterate and could barely read their prayers. 2. Some of the popes were men of questionable morals 3. Many bishops and abbots cared more about their position as feudal lords than their duties as spiritual leaders
What was the name of the new Style of architecture? Gothic Architecture
What was the "religous court" that Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII created? The Papal Curia
What enabled farmers to grow on land they never could before? A sudden change in climate to a warmer tempurature
How long did the warmer climates last? From about 800 to 1200 A.D
Who pulled plows for hundreds of years? Oxens because they were easy to take care of
Why didn't farmers use horses to pull plows originally? Horses needed better straw and more food to maintain a healthy life
How much more land could a team of horses plow in a day than oxens? Horses could plow three times as much land in a day as oxens
Before they could use horses for plowing and pulling wagons, what first did they have to invent? They had to invent harnesses to fit the horses
By 800 what did farmers start to do with their land? Farmers started to organize their land into three fields not just two
What fraction of the year could farmers plant and harvest crops? Farmers could now plant crops two-thirds of the year instead of just half
What was a major effect of the three-field system? Farmers from then on produced more food for everyone, kids were especially well fed they could resist disease better and live longer
What were guilds? A guild was an organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members
Who were the first form of guilds? Merchants were the first form of guilds they banded together to keep control on how much was being traded to keep prices up, they also provided security in trading reduced losses
Name some other people who started guilds. wheelwrites, glassmakers, winemakers, tailors, and druggist began crafting guilds.
What eventually returns that helps communication and society? After no communication with anyone for centuries trade returns
What did merchants create to help with money if you were traveling constantly and trading? They had come up with a bill of exchange this established exchange rates between different coinage systems. There was also Letters of Credit this eliminated for merchants to carry alot of money with them at the same time.
Due to the growth of towns and villages, what started to breakup? The feudal system had started to breakup and become more of a centralized goverment
What are two groups that stayed in England after they had invaded it? The Angles and Saxons
In the 800's, Britain was attacked by who? The Danish Vikings
The Vikings were feared so much the church ahd what for them? The Church had a special prayers just for them
Who was the person that managed to drive the vikings back? Alfred the Great Anglo-Saxon king was the only one who managed to drive the vikings back
Who was the person to name England? Alfred the Great and his successors
Created by: 19mryan