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Unit 3A


The Heart is a muscle that functions in pumping ______ through______ of the cardiovascular system Blood, vessels
The heart is composed ______ muscle, ______ in type. Striated, Cardiac
How many internal cavities are there in the heart and what are they called ? 4 Chambers, 2 Atria & 2 Ventricles
The atria and the ventricles are differentiated by By side of the body such as ? Right and left Atrium, Left and right Ventricle
The heart is positioned in such a way that the atria lie _______ (NOT SUPERIOR) to the ventricles. Posterior
When blood passing from the Atria to the Ventricles , moves _______ rather than _______. Horizontally, Vertically
The heart is located in the _____ between the _____, resting on the ______ Thorax, Lungs, Diaphragm
Structure that protects the heart ANTERIORLY Sternum
Structure that protects the heart LATERALLY Ribs, Intercostal muscles, Lungs
Structure that protects the heart POSTERIORLY Thoracic vertebrae
PROTECTS HEART: The heart is enclosed in a tough connective tissue sac called the ? Pericardium
The outer layer of the pericardium blends with the central tendon of the______ inferiorly diaphragm
PERICARDIUM : _______ and ______, the fibrous layer blends with the major vessels of the heart, ______, ____ ___, &_______ ______ Superiorly, Posteriorly, superior vena cava, Aorta, Pulmonary Trunk
The cardiac muscle itself is reffered to as ? Myocardium
The inner EPITHELIAL lining of the chambers of the heart is referred to as ? Endocardium
EXTERNAL ANATOMY OF HEART: the heart is described as having and ___, a _____, and 3 ____ apex, base, surfaces
The 3 surfaces of the heart Sternocostal , Diaphragmatic , Pulmonary
Surface that lies adjacent to the sternum and costal cartilages Sternocostal
Surface that lies adjacent to the diaphragm Diaphragmatic
Surface that lies adjacent to the medial surface of the left and right lung Pulmonary
A rounded projection of the heart that points inferiorly and to the left Apex
generally the area where the great vessels attach to the heart , and these vessels are ? BASE, (aorta, pulmonary trunk,SVC)
Both right and left atria have EAR-Like appendages attached to the lateral surface of the atria's. Auricles
Clinically, the term auricle is also referred to as the ? Appendage
RA: a vertical muscular ridge is seen on the posterior wall of the right atrium is called ? Crista Terminalis
in the right atrium From the crista terminalis are muscular ridge-like extensions called ______ and also called _____ Musculi Pectinati , Pectinate Muscles
In the right atrium Musculi Pectinati are found in the right____ and in the right and left _____. atrium, auricle
How many major venous openings into the right atrium ? 3
What are the 3 major venous openings called in the right atrium ? Superior Vena Caval , Inferior Vena Caval , Opening of the coronary Sinus
The main vein returning blood to the heart(RA) from the UPPER half of the body Superior Vena Cava
The main vein returning blood to the heart (RA) from the LOWER half of the body Inferior Vena Cava
Venous chamber located on the posterior surface of the heart Coronary Sinus
The coronary sinus recieves the cardiac veins that _____ the heart itself Drain
The coronary sinus opens into the (RA) just _____ and _____ to the inferior vena cava. anterior , superior
The partition between the right atrium and the left atrium Interatrial septum
on the Interatrial septum in the RA lies an oval depression called the ? Fossa Ovalis
Fossa ovalis is a remnant of a ______ that in the fetal stage of development existed between the RA & LA Foramen
opening that closes at birth and remains in the adult as a fossa ovalis Foramen Ovale
Anteriorly the right atrium opens into the right ventricle .. via the right ___________ opening atrioventricular
Tricuspid Valve is also called Right atrioventricular valve
The Right atrioventricular opening is guarded by the _________ ( RAV) Tricuspid
a mechanical device that will allow for flow of blood in 1 direction only preventing retrograde flow (flow in the wrong direction) Valve
2 types of valves in the heart Atrioventricular Valves , Semilunar Valves
An atrioventricular valve is composed of 3 parts ? Cusps, Chordae Tendineae, Papillary muscle
flaps of connective tissue cusps
connective tissue cords that attatch to the lower surface of the cusps located in the right and left ventricles Chordae Tendineae
Internal folds of ventricular muscle that give attachment to the chordae tendineae Papillary Muscles
The tricuspid valve functions in ? closing during contraction of the right ventricle
When the tricuspid valve is closed , it will prevent _____ of blood from the RV to the RA back flow
The tricuspid valve is held in a closed position via _____ _____ that are attached to the lower surface of the cusps , and are not ______ into the atrium chordae tendineae, Everted (inside/outward)
RV: the internal surface of the ventricle consists of irregular ridge like projections of muscle called ? Trabeculae Carneae
______ muscles are a type of Trabeculae Carneae Papillary
A band of muscle in the chamber (RV) is called the ? also called ? Moderator Band, Septomarginal Trabecula
The Moderator band (septomarginal trabecula) contains important fibers of the _________ system of the heart. Conduction
how many openings are there in the RV and what are they ? 2 , Right atrioventricular opening( guarded by TV) , Pulmonary trunk opening
Blood will_____ the RV and _____ the pulmonary trunk by passing though the pulmonary trunk opening. Leave, Enter
the pulmonary trunk opening is guarded by a valve called the ? Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
a (pulmonary or Aortic) semilunar valve, unlike the atrioventricular valves does NOT possess ______ muscles & _________ papillary, chordae tendineae
the pulmonary semilunar valve exists merely as a ______-_____ flaps surrounding an opening pocket-like
For each semi-lunar valve there are how many cusps or flaps ? 3
PSV: the free edge of each cusp has a small central thickening of fibrous tissue , called the _______ nodule
the nodule fills a small gap left at _______ of the 3 flaps. closure
Between the cusps(flaps) of the PSV and the wall of the pulmonary trunk, there are ? 3 sinuses
When the flow of blood is from the right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk the PSV ______. If the flow is RETROGRADE it _______. opens, closes
Pulmonary Circulation: blood will flow though the pulmonary trunk into the right and left pulmonary ______, to the Right and left ______. arteries, lungs
Pulmonary Circulation: in the lungs, blood will RELEASE ____ and RECEIVE ____ CO2, O2
Pulmonary Circulation:Oxygenated blood will return to the heart via 4 ________ _______. 2 from the _____ ____ and 2 from the ____ _____ Pulmonary Veins, Right Lung, Left Lung
Pulmonary Circulation: All 4 of the pulmonary veins will enter the ___ ____. Left Atrium
The left atrium has its musculi pectinati located within the left ______ ONLY Auricle
The main part of the left atrium is taken up by the __#__ separate openings of the pulmonary_____. 2 on the right & 2 on left 4, veins
THE ONLY other opening at the left atrium is the ? LEFT ATRIOVENTRICULAR OPENING
The Bicuspid valve is also called the ? Left Atrioventricular valve, Mitral valve
Because the Bicuspid valve is an atrioventricular valve it contains what ? Chordae tendineae and Papillary muscles
how many cusps in the in the bicuspid valve 2
In the Mitral valve (bicuspid) the supporting papillary muscles connect to the ____. cusps
blood will flow Through the Bicuspid valve from the _____ _____ into the _____ _____ Left Atrium , Left ventricle
the LV contains muscular ridge like folds called TRABECULAE CARNEAE
____ _____ of the bicuspid valve are a type of TRABECULAE CARNEAE Papillary muscles
One major difference between the RV and the LV is the _____ of the wall itself. Thickness
The wall of the LV is usually more than ____ as ____ as that of the right. twice , thick
The RV is thinner than the LV because must pump blood to how many organ(s) and which organ(s) ONLY 1 organ , the lungs
The LV is thicker than the RV because it must pump blood to _____, and thus preforms ____ work, and is _____ in size. every other organs (xcept lungs), More, Larger
How many openings in the LV 2
What are the only openings in the LV Left atrioventricular opening , Opening of the Aorta
When the LV contracts, blood will leave and ____ the ____ enter, Aorta
The opening of the Aorta is guarded by what valve ? Aortic Semi Lunar Valve
The ASV has how many cusps 3
In the ASV where are the cusps located ? at the opening of the aorta
The cusps of the ASV contain ___ and ___ as did the PSV Nodules , Lunulae
ASV: the spaces between cusps and the wall of the aorta are termed ___ ___ and differ from the pulmonary sinuses in that the right aortic sinus and the left aortic sinus are the sites of origin of the R + L ______ sinuses aortic sinuses, coronary
Blood will leave the LV and enter the_____ and then pass to all parts of the ___ aorta , body
EXTERNAL vessels supplying the heart: _______ arteries arise form the ascending aorta supply of the muscle of the heart itself (myocardium) Coronary
The ___ coronary arty courses on the right side of the heart and gives off the _____ artery Right, Marginal
The left coronary artery gives courses off a ___ distance and gives off _#_ branches. Short, 2
2 branches of the Left Coronary artery Left anterior descending artery (LAD), Circumflex
The Left anterior descending artery (LAD) is also known as Anterior interventricular artery
the muscle of the heart ( Myocardium) is drained by ? Cardiac veins
Created by: osabdelr



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