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chapter 19

The French Revolution

Georges-Jacques Danton a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and led the Paris Commune
September Massacres the massacre of royalists and other inmates of the prisons of Paris that occurred during the French Revolution.
The National Convention assembly that governed France from September, 1792, until October, 1795, during the most critical period of the French Revolution.
Olympe de Gouges, The Rights of Women was a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience; challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male–female inequality.
Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Women eighteenth-century English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights; she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education.
Women's march to Versailles aka The October March. Women in the marketplaces of Paris riots over the high price and scarcity of bread.
Jean-Paul Marat physician, political theorist and scientist.
Marie Antoinette queen of France and wife of Louis XVI, overthrew monarchy and was executed for treason
First Estate the clergy, less than 1% of the population and were exempt from taxes
Second Estate the Nobility, 2-4% of total population and exempt form taxation, owned about 25% of the land and allowed to tax peasants
Third Estate rich merchants or professionals, the middle class, urban artisans, unskilled workers and all peasants.were taxed the most
Emigres French nobles who fled France begging in august1791,influenced Prussia and Austria to declare the restortion of the French monarchy as the goal.
National Assembly numerous historical French parliaments or houses of parliaments; made up by representatives of the third estate.
Tennis Court Oath act of defiance by representatives of the third estate where they agreed to never separate until a written constitution was formed.
Storming of the Bastille craftsmen and salesmen invade and attack a prison that was a symbol of king's absolute power; taken place on July 14, 1789.
"Great Fear" period of panic and riot due to fear of the third estate being overthrown: start of the French revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen created by France's National assembly containing principles that inspired the French Revolution.
Estates General The representative assembly of the three “estates,” or orders of the realm: the clergy and nobility—which were privileged minorities—and a Third Estate, which represented the majority of the people.
cahiers de doléances The lists of grievances drawn up by each of the three Estates in France, between March and April 1789, the year in which the French Revolution began.
Abbé Sieyès, What is the Third Estate? A political pamphlet written in January 1789, shortly before the outbreak of the French Revolution, by a French thinker and clergyman
"Age of Montesquieu" 1st stage of the revolution, the bourgeoisie phase
refractory clergy half of French priests refused to accept the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, had support of king, former aristocrats, peasants, and urban working-class
Jacobins The most prominent political clubs of the French Revolution that served as debating societies where politically minded Frenchmen aired their views and discussed current political issues
Girondins a political faction in France in 1792–93 within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution.
Legislative Assembly the legislature of France from 1 October 1791 to September 1792 during the years of the French Revolution.
"Temple of Reason" A temple during the French Revolution that was for a new belief system created to replace Christianity.
Revolutionary Calendar The calendar of the French first Republic that was adopted in 1795 and abandoned in 1805, consisting of 12 months, each of 30 days, and intercalary days added at the end of the year.
Thermidorian Reaction A revolt within the French Revolution against the leadership of the Jacobbin Club over the committee of Public Safety.
The Directory A group of five men who held the executive power in France according to the constitution of the year 1795.
Bourgeoisie The social order that is dominated by the so-called middle class.
Ancien Regime ( Old Regime) Political and social system of France prior to the French Revolution.
Jacques Necker A French statesman of Swiss birth and finance minister of Louis XVI, a post he held in the lead-up to the French Revolution in 1789.
Equality, Liberty, Fraternity Central ideas of republicanism in France.
Mountain Group of the Jacobin Club of Paris led by radical republicans in the urban class. By narrow majority won The Girondists and so Louis XVI was put to death.
sans-culottes radical working-class revolutionaries
Committee of Public Safety An emergency government that dealt with internal and external challenges to the revolution.
Maximilien Robespierre (1753-1794) Led the Committee of Public Safety; Influenced heavily by the ideas of Rousseau; fanatically supported revolutionary idealism
Louis Saint-Just a military and political leader during the French Revolution; was also a major leader of the Committee of Public Safety alongside Robespierre; organized the arrests and prosecutions of many of the most famous figures of the Revolution
Levée en masse the entire nation conscripted into service as war was defined as a national mission
Triple Alliance The alliance of Austia, Germany, and Italy. Italy left the alliance when war broke out in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched a war of aggression
Entente Cordial Britain gained control of Egypt. France gained control of Morocco. But not a written alliance only and agreement. Basically against Germany.
Created by: birmingham