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Chapter 18 Part 1

AP Euro - Scientific Revolution

Scientific Revolution This became the major cause of the new world view of the 17th and 18th centuries. A new way of thinking about the natural world that challenged traditional views and instead relied upon experimentation.
Copernicus, heliocentric view 1473-1543 Argued that the earth revolved around the sun and that the sun was the center of the universe Seemed to challenged the Bible's Book of Genesis that also put forth a geocentric view.
Tycho Brahe 1546-1601 Europe's leading astronomer in the late 16th century Built the best observatory in Europe and collected massive data on his observations of the universe His data later proved Copernicus' theory
Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 First great Protestant scientist; assistant to Brahe Mathematically proved Copernicus' theory Developed 3 Laws of Planetary Motion
3 Laws of Planetary Motion Orbits of planets are elliptical Planets do not move at uniform speed while in their orbits The time if takes for a planet to orbit the sun is directly based on its distance from the sun
Galileo 1564-1642 Developed Laws of Motion Validated Copernicus view with the aid of a telescope First to use a telescope, scientific instrument His findings became controversial in Catholic countries 1616 the Catholic Church - Copernican theory - heretical
Laws of Motion Used the experimental method,with controlled experiments Accelerations experiments: gravity was a universal force that produced uniform acceleration Law of inertia: An object that is in motion remains in motion until it is stopped by some external force
Telescope an optical instrument designed to make distant objects appear nearer, containing an arrangement of lenses, or of curved mirrors and lenses, by which rays of light are collected and focused and the resulting image magnified
Francis Bacon 1561-1626 Formalized the empirical method Inductive method for scientific experimentation His method along with Descartes deductive reason formed the backbone of the modern scientific method.
Empiricism Formalized by Francis Bacon The theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience
Inductive method Begin with inductive observation, then form a hypothesis, conduct experiments and then organize the data. Renounce notions and begin to form an acquaintance with things
Rene Descartes 1596-1650 Discourse on Method advocated the use of deductive reasoning Proof depended on logic alone Believed science must: start with clear and incontrovertible facts Subdivide each problem in as many parts as necessary, step-by-step logical way
Deductive reasoning A logical process in which a conclusion drawn from a set of premises contains no more information than the premises taken collectively. Formed by Descartes
cogito ergo sum (“I think; therefore, I am”)
Cartesian dualism Divided all existence into the spiritual and the material
Scientific method Inductive method(of Bacon) + Deductive Method(of Descartes)
Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Incorporated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with the physics of Galileo into an overarching theory explaining order and design to the universe Formed the Principle of Universal Gravitation Invented calculus
Principle of universal gravitation Natural Laws of motion - gravitation - are evident in the movement of heavenly bodies and earthly objects Everybody in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship Foundation of Deism
Principia, 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Perhaps the greatest book on science ever written
Vesalius The Structure of the Human Body (1543):renewed and modernized the study of anatomy.
William Harvey 1578-1657 On the Movement of the Heart and Blood(1628) Explained how blood was pumped by the heart and circulated throughout the body
Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1623-1723 Father of microscopy: developed powerful microscopes First to see and write about bacteria, yeast plants, living organisms in a drop of water and the circulation of blood corpuscles in capillaries.
Created by: Jrod42