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Stack #17469

Chapter 26 Renal Physiology

urinary system 3 major functions: excretion, elimination,homeostatic regulation of the volume and solute concentration of blood plasma
kidneys organs that produce urine
urine fluid containing water, ions, and small soluable compounds
urinary tract paired tubes at which urine leaves the kidneys via this
ureters paired tubes
urethra conducts urine to the exterior
urination/micturition elimination of urine
renal capsule layer of collagen fibers that covers the outer surface of the entire organ
adipose capsule thick layer of adipose tissue that surrounds the renal capsule
renal fascia dense fibrous outer layer
hilus prominant medial indention is the the point of entry for the renal artery and renal nerves and is the exit point of exit for the renal vein and the ureter
renal sinus an internal cavity within the kidney.
cortex superficial portion of the kidneys
medulla 6-18 distinct conical or triangular structures called renal pyramids
renal papilla projects into the renal sinus
renal columns bands of cortical tissue that extends into the medulla
renal lobe renal pyramid, the overlying area of the renal cortex, and adjacent tissues of the renal columns
minor calyx ducts within each renal papilla discharge urine into this cup shaped drain
nephrons where urine production begins at a microscopic , tubular structures
renal artery kidneys receive blood
segmental arteries divide into interlobar arteries
arcuate arteries arch along the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney
renal tubule long tubular passageway 50mm in length
renal corpuscle spherical structure that contains bowman's capsule
Bowmans capsule a cup shaped chamber @ 200 microm
glomerulus consists of 50 intertwining capillaries
filtrate protein free solution
tubular fluid when the filtrate changes in composition
collecting systems each nephron empties; series of tubes that carry tubular fluid away from the nephron
cortical nephrons 85% of all nephrons; located at the superficial cortex of the kidney
juxtamedullary 15% of nephrons
proximal convoluted tubule 1st segment of the renal tubule; absorbtion
peritubular fluid interstitial fluid surrounding the renal tubule
loop of henle can be divided into descending limb; ascending limb; nephron loop
distal convoluted tubule 3rd segment of the renal corpuscle
macula densa epithelial cells of the DCT
juxtaglomerular apparatus endocrine structure that secrets the hormone erythropoietin and the enzyme renin
filtration blood pressure forces water and solutes across the wall of the glomerular capillaries
reabsorption removal of water and solutes from the filtrate
secretion transport of solutes from the peritubular fluid
polycystic kidney disease inherited condition affecting the structure of kidney tubules
glomerular filtration involves passage across the filtration membrane. has 3 componets 1. capillary endothelium, 2. lamina densa 3. filtration slits
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP) the blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries. This pressure tends to push water and solute molecules out of the plasma and into the filtrate.45-55mm
capsular hydrostatic pressure (CsHP) tends to push water and solutes out of the filtrate and into the plasma 25mm
filtration pressure (FP) the glomerulus is the difference between the hydrostatic pressure and the colloid osmotic pressure acting across the glomerular capillaries 10mm
glomerular filtration rate (GFR) the amount of filrate you kidneys produce each minute.
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) this conversion occurs primarily in the capillaries of the lungs.
Created by: RD2