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Development continuum - 2
|Gross domestic product is the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country, normally during a year.
|Workers who extract materials from the earth (ex. agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry).
|Manufacturers that process, transform and assemble raw materials into useful products.
|Involves the provision of goods and services to people in exchange for payment (ex. retail, banking, law, education, government).
|The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
|In manufacturing this means the gross value of the product, minus the cost of raw materials and energy.
|The percentage of a countries people who can read and write.
|HDI economic indicators
|Human Development Index, created by the UN, recognizes that a country's level of development is a function of economic (GDP), social (literacy rate and amount of education), and demographic (life expectancy) factors.
|It is the gender inequality index. It was created by UN to measure the extent of each country's gender inequality.
|Maternal Mortality Ratio
|is the number of women who died giving birth per 100,000 births.
|Adolescent fertility rate
|is the number of births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19.
|Female labor force participation rate
|The percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside the home.
|Gross National Income – is the value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that enters and leaves the country.
|In the context of gender inequality, empowerment refers to the ability of women to achieve improvements in their on status, that is, to achieve economical and political power.
|What are the three factors that United Nation (UN) uses to explain GII?
|empowerment, labor force and reproductive health.
|Two indicators that are based on the reproductive health dimension:
|Maternal Mortality Ratio and Adolescent Fertility Rate
|The empowerment of women is measured by two indicators:
|the percentage of seats held by women in the national legislature; the percentage of women who have completed high school.
|Gender inequality trends
|The UN has found that in nearly every country, gender inequality has declined since the 1990's. The greatest improvements have been in Southwest Asia and North Africa
|These are goods that are ultimately consumed rather than used in the production of another good. For example, a microwave oven or a car, etc.
|the number of years a baby is expected to live
|Less Developed Countries - Ex: Ghana, Sierra Leone, Bangladesh, etc.
|More developed Countries Ex: Sweden, Norway, Japan, USA, etc.
|Inequality Adjusted Human Development Index
|Modification of the HDI to account inequality within a country
|Purchasing power Parity (PPP) is the amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country; PPP adjust income figures to account for differences among countries in the costs of goods.
|Is the process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
|World Trade Organization - works to reduce barriers to international trade in two principal ways.
|Gender Inequality Index is based in three factors:
|empowerment, labor force participation and reproductive health
|an alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses. it is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions and to promote sustainability.
|Two Paths to development:
|Self-sufficiency and International trade
|Foreign Direct Investment:
|Investments made by foreign companies in another economy;
|Decent Standard of Living
|It is a key part of development. the UN measures the standard of living in countries through a complex index called Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and purchase power parity (PPP).
|Access to Knowledge
|According to the UN, access to knowledge is essential for people to have the possibility to have leading lives of value. In general, the higher the level of development, the greater are both the quantity and and the quality of a country's education.
|Access to knowledge includes:
|quantity of schooling: years of schooling and expected years of schooling; quality of schooling: pupil/teacher ratio and literacy rate.