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Comparative anatomy

Circulatory system

What is transported? oxygen,co2,nutrients,water,hormones,nitrogen waste,WBC,platelets,RBCw/hemoglobin,proteins,dissolved ions,antibodies,heat(thermoregulation)
Path of general circulation heart,arteries,arterioles,capillary bed in organ,venlues,veins
Path of general hepatic portal system heart,arteries,arterioles,capillary bed in intestine,portal vein,capillary bed in liver,venlues,veins
Lymphatic vessels like veins but dump lymphnodes into heart.
Fish heart 4 undivided chambers,primitive-single circuit pump-gills. linear arrangement,contract from caudal to cranial.single stream of blood(lowO2).heart mass/body mass ratio low b/c if heart were too big would blow capillaries out.
Path of blood in fish sinus venosis(thin walled),atrium(thin walled),ventricle(thick walled),cornus arterious(thick walled)
Sinus venosus thin wall, recieves blood from common cardinal veins, hepatic veins
atrium large and thin walled
ventricle thick wall,responsible for pumping.
corus arteriosus short in bony fish and amphibians.continuous with ventral aorta(right under chin and tongue in shark)
Tetrapod lungs double circulation, low pressure pulmonary circuit(R)(lungs are right there),high pressure systemic circuit(L)(have to go further).Some chambers are partitioned
Transitional hearts atrium division in lung fish and salamanders(partial),frogs(complete).Ventricle division in lung fish(partial),all amphibians(no division) but have trabeculae that help guide blood.conus division in lung fish and amphibians are partial(spiral valve)
Shunting sends blood where you need it and close off areas where you dont need it. regulate where blood goes.
Reptile heart artrium is completely divided,ventricle is partial in many,extra chamber in many,fully divided in crocs.Conus has 3channels.pulmonary,left systemic and right systemic that join to form single dorsal aorta.
crocodilian heart in air-right ventricle pumps to pulmonary,left ventricle pumps to both R+L aortic arches,using Foramen of Panizza to connect them.Diving-Rventricle shunts blood to body,L ventricle is normal.
Bird and mammal heart 4 chambers,2 artia and 2 ventricles;complete division.Lventricle especially muscular.conus-pulmonary systemic circuit,mammals single L systemic arch,Birds single R systemic arch.
Path of a single drop of blood in mammals cranial/caudal vena cava,R atrium,Tricuspid,Rventricle,Pulmonary trunk,Pulm.artery,Pulm.Veins,L.artium,bicuspid,L.ventricle,aorta w/R arch.
Blood vessels closed system-blood always in vessels.capillaries-some plasma leakes.lymph vessels collect leaked fluid.return it to venous system into subclavian veins.elephantiosis-lymphatic filariosis,nematode worms block lymph system
Circulatory system characteristics variable in anatomy,flexability(transplant a vein,it will act like an artery,tie off part,other parts enlarge,five fold variation in flow rate,shunting)
Types of vessels capillaries,arteries,veins
capillaries Tunica intima(all blood vessels have) this is where loose epithelial cells that are one cell thick.Site of material exchange
arteries thick wall. small bore(part blood flows through).consists of tunica intima,Tunica media(smooth muscle+elastic,inner layer).Tunica adventitia(thick connective tissue,outer most layer)
veins thin wall,large bore.same as artery, only much thinner, no elastic.valves to prevent back flow b/c no smooth muscle.holds more blood than arteries.
Patterns of Circulation consists of the arterial system
arterial system 6 aortic arches(different from pharyngeal arches). in embryo;differentiate into head arteries. arches 6,4,3 are important in terms of transitions
aortic arches of cartilage fish 1st arch lost,rest branchial(afferent/efferent).
aortic arches of bony fish 1st and 2nd arches branchial
aortic arches of lung fish like bony fish,pulmonary artery from arch 6.
aortic arches of tetrapods 1st and 2nd lost,dorsal segment dropped between 3rd and 4th arches.arch 3 now carotid complex.3rd arch extends to Internal carotid with carotic arch.ventral aorta extension is now external carotid.common carotic at base between 3rd and 4th.
4th aortic arch in tetrapods systemic(aortic arch).amphibians,reptials both R+L. Birds only R.mammals only L.
5th and 6th aortic arch in tetrapods 5th arch is lost.6th is pulmonary.
Arterial system consists of what? dorsal aorta,ventral branches,lateral branches,dorsal branches,posterior appendages,anterior appendages.
dorsal aorta large median vessel
ventral braches celiac artery(stomach).mesenteric arteries
lateral branches renal,ovarian,testicular
dorsal branches to muscles,skin
posterior appendages iliac arteries
anterior arteries subclavian arteries
What are the three Venous systems? subintestinal,cardinal,lateral abdominal
subintestinal hepatic portal vein in adult drains digestive organs, goes to liver
cardinal drains head, body wall,kidneys(renal portal in many not mammals.
Lateral abdominal drains posterior limbs, body wall.
Portal system circulation starts in either the sm.Intestine,spleen,stomach. goes to the hepatic portal,goes to liver,and then hepatic veins.
Portal system Veins drain organ and dump blood into other organ instead of heart.
Hepatic portal system specialized.from embryonic subintestinal.drains capillary beds of intestine,stomach,spleen to need to go to heart first.increase nutrients, decrease O2
cardinal system parts Primitive,drains head,tail. subsystem:renal portal
Primitive, drains head,tail consists of what? anterior and posterior cardinal veins
Subsystem:renal portal consists of what? routes venous blood through kidneys,not in mammals.
Subsystem path in fish tail capillaries...renal portal(kidneys) cardinal
Subsystem path in tetrapods tail capillaries...renal portal(kidneys) cava
Modifications to Basic Cardinal venous system mammals lose renal portal.pre-cava from right common cardinal,internal jugular from anterior cardinal veins,posterior vena cava from parts of posterior cardinals and parts of renal portal,azygous vein from Rt posterior cardinal.
Lateral Abdominal system drains posterior limb and body wall
Fetal Circulation consists of what? Foramen Ovale,Ductus arteriosus,umbilical arteries,umbilical vein,ductus venosus. From the right atrium blood goes directly into the left atrium via the Foramen ovale.
Foramen Ovale opening between atria(to avoid lungs because they are not developed yet).
Ductus arteriosus connect pulmonary to aorta(by pass lungs)
umbilical arteries x2.branch from iliac.out to placenta with waste
umbilical veins single.nutrient and O2 rich.brings oxygen and blood back to fetus.
Ductus venosus found in the liver
Created by: ejohnson17



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