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Emergency Care 12th

Chap 6 Principles of Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology The study of how disease processes affect the function of the body.
Metabolism The cellular function of converting nutrients into energy.
Electrolyte a substance that, when dissolved in water, separates into charged particles.
Aerobic Metabolism The cellular process in which oxygen is used to metabolize glucose. Energy is produced in an efficient manner with minimal waste products.
Common cell structures include what? Nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria.
What is DNA? The genetic blueprint for reproduction.
True or false: The cell nucleus contains DNA True
What are the structure inside of a cell covered by? A cell membrane
What does the cell membrane do? protects and selectively allows water and other substances into and out of the cell.
What role does the endoplasmic reticulum have? synthesizing proteins.
The mitochondria are responsible for what? converting glucose and other nutrients into energy in the form of ATP/adenosine triphosphate
Converting glucose and other nutrients into energy in the form of ATP/adenosine triphosphate is known as what process? Metabolism
WHAT is ATP/adenosine triphosphate? the cells internally centered fuel and is responsible for powering all the other cellular functions.
What would happen without ATP/adenosine triphosphate? many of the cells specialized structures cannot function.
What does the sodium potassium pump do? it actively moves ions back and fourth across the cell membrane.
True or false without ATP the sodium potassium pump cannot actively moves ions back and forth across the cell membrane. True
The movement of ions back and forth across the cell membrane is responsible for what? Generating an electrical charge to cause depolarization.
What is depolarization? The stimulus for muscle contraction, including contractions of the heart.
In order for cells to function they have basic requirements such as? principally water, glucose, and oxygen.
What happens to a cell if there is not enough water between its inside and outside? The cell will dehydrate and die.
What happens when there is too much water between a cells inside and outside? The cellular function will be interrupted.
Levels of water in the body are controlled by what? Circulatory and renal systems
Electrolytes are substances that, when dissolved in water, speapereate into charged particles. The movement of these charged particles enables what to happen? Electrical function of cells such as nerve transmissions and cardiac muscle depolarization.
What is glucose? Sugar converted from foods we eat.
What is the basic nutrient of a cell? Glucose
What happens without glucose? Energy is not created and cell functions ceases.
What is the building block for ATP? Glucose
What does healthy metabolism require? Oxygen
Oxygen is used by the cell to do what? Metabolize glucose into energy.
Whatis one of the waste products of metabolism? CO2 AKA Carbon Dioxid
What do the waste products of anaerobic metabolism do to the body? Makes it more acidic.
Anaerobic metabolisim The cellular process in which glucose is metabolized into energy without oxygen. energy is produced in an efficient manner with many waste products.
Oxygenation of the cells and the removal of the waste products of metabolism are among the responsibilities of what? Respiratory system
What is the vulnerable element of the cell? Cell membrane
Many disease processes alter the permeability (or the ability to effectively transfer fluid, electrolytes, and other substances in and out) of what? Cell membrane
What can allow substances into the cell that should not be there (like toxins) and interfere with the regulation of water? an ineffective cell membrane
True or false: A single cell's function can not be disrupted by illness or injury. False, it CAN be distrupted
inhaled air contains mostly what? Nitrogen
what is the percentage of oxygen and nitrogen we inhale in one breath? oxygen 21% Nitrogen 79%
The contraction of oxygen in the air we breath in is referred to as what? The fraction of inspired oxygen.
FiO2 Is what? Fraction of inspired oxygen.
Cardiopulmonary system refers to the combination of the respiratory and cardiovascular system.
What are the main functions of the cardiopulmonary system? to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the cells and to remove waste products from the cells.
Moving air in and out of the chest needs an open pathway, this pathway is referred to as what? patent airway
There are a number of potential airway challenges that occur with disease and trauma what are they? upper airway (above the trachea), infection ( like croup), or by trauma (burns causing soft tissue of the larynx to swell.
Tidial volume the volume of air moved in one cycle of breathing
minute volume the amount of air breathed in during each respiration multiplied by the number of breaths per minute.
dead air space air that occupies the space between the mouth and alveoli but that does not actually reach the area of gas exchange.
When does respiratory dysfunction occur? Anytime minute volume is interfered with.
What is the seat of respiratory control? Medulla oblongata
What is Medulla Oblongata? a section of the brain which is the seat of respiratory control.
Name things that can affect the medulla oblongata: Medical events such as stroke or infections, Toxins and drugs such as narcotics, brain trauma and intracranial pressure, spinal injuries and other neurological disorders.
pleural space slight space between the lung tissue and chest wall.
Is there fluid is the pleural space? Yes a small amount
How is ventilation activates? By changing pressure with in
What is the purpose of the fluid in the pleural space? the fluid both lubricates the space to reduce friction of movement and helps the lung to adhere to the inside of the chest wall.
Another name for low oxygen hypoxia
another way to say high carbon dioxide hypercapnia
Chemoreceptors Chemical sensors in the brain and blood vessels that identify changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
important Water is permeable to anything in the body that is semipermeable
What does Lysosome do? Cleans out the bad stuff in the cell
Aerobic Metab. Cellular function using O2 to produce APT
Anaerobic Cellular function not using oxygen
Anaerobic creates much less energy and more waste. Body becomes acid
pyruvic acid breaks down in to cacti acid
The respiratory system and the cardiovascular system work together to create the word Cardiopulmonary System
Cardiopulmonary System works together to: create oxygen, distribute to cells, remove CO2
Hydroid bone it is the u shaped bone that sets at the top of the trachea. It is not attached to anything
*Carina* Cough response
What type of muscle is around the bronchiole? Smooth Muscle
If a wall of the thorax (chest) is compermised due to (puncture wounds or rib factures
Medulla oblongata sits at the base of the Braine and it controls automatic function such as: breathing, digestion and heart rate
If the wall of the thorax is compromised due to a puncture or a fractured rib the ability to inhale and exhale is impacted and minute volume increases or decreases? Decreased or reduced.
Hypoxia low oxygen
Pleural Space air or blood accumulating in chest
Pleural Space can compromise what? Breathing
Hemoglobin Red blood cells
what does hemoglobin do it acts as Velcro for CO2 and O2 to travel on.
Blood dysfunction: Less blood Less gas exchange
What happens when there is loss of tone in the blood vessels? vessels loss ability to constrict and dilate, pressure drops
what is the cause of loss of tone? trauma, infections, allergic reactions
What does the mass cell release? Histamine
What happens when the mass cell releases histamine dilation of blood vessels, bronchial constriction, blood pressure drops, stop breathing
What is permeability? Capillaries leak fluid out of their walls
Interstitial spaces The fluid between the cell and the vessels
To much fluid in the interstitial space can cause what? Edema/swelling
Do not lay your patient flat down if they have severe edema because: They will drown in their own fluid
Perfusion Regular delivery of O2 and nutrients to the cell and removal of waste products.
Hypoprfusion break down of system, this can result in death of the patient.
Shock Inadequate tissue perfusion
What happens in compensated shock? HR goes up, BP is normal, RR is up, CRT is normal or slightly delayed
Uncompensated Shock HR is up, BP is down, RR is up and CRT is delayed
Irreversible Shock HR down, BP down, RR down, delayed
60% of your body weight is made up of what? Water
***The brighter the blood the closer to the opening. The darker the blood the further away from the opening Remember This
Hydrostatic pressure the pressure exerted by a liquid as a result of its potential energy.
Stroke volume the volume pumped out of one ventricle of the heart in a single beat.
Chemoreceptors chemical sensor in the brain and blood vessels that identify changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Plasma oncotic pressure the pull exerted by large proteins in the plasma portion of blood that tends to pull water from the body into the bloodstream.
***Hydrostatic pressure The pressure within a blood vessel that tends to push water out of the vessel.
Stretch receptors sensors in blood vessels that identify internal pressure.
Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) The pressure in the peripheral blood vessels that the heart must overcome in order to pump blood into the system.
***Stroke volume the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one contraction
Cardiac output the amount of blood ejected from the heart in 1 min (heart rate X stroke volume.
V/Q Match ( Ventilation/perfusion match ) Thi simplies that teh aveoli are supplied with enough air and that the air in the alveoli is matched with sufficient blood in the pulmonary capillaries to permit optimum exchange of O2 and CO2
perfusion the supply of O2 and removal of CO2 from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries.
hypoperfusion (AKA shock) inability of the body to adequately circulation blood to the body's cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients.
Hypersensitivity an exaggerated response by the immune system to a particular substance.
Created by: LacyJay87



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