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Divine Right the king’s power to rule comes from God; James I was a strong advocate of this, and Parliament wasn’t too fond of it
James I Son of Mary, Queen of Scots. Becomes king of England after Elizabeth dies without an heir. Strong supporter of Divine Right of Kings. Disliked Puritans.
Charles I Son of James I, fought with Parliament (Puritans), fought with Oliver Cromwell. Eventually executed.
Petition of Right Parliament wanted basic rights. These rights included king couldn’t levy taxes without their permission, recognized due process, right of habeas corpus, outlawed quartering of soldiers in homes.
ship money Medieval tax traditionally only levied on coastal towns for the privilege of shipbuilding, Charles levied it on non
Thorough Charles tries to rule without Parliament (1629
Short Parliament Charles needed money to raise an army against the Scots then Charles disbanded Parliament after a month
Long Parliament Scots make way into northern england in 1640, Charles forced to reconvene parliament, has to give into demands
Triennial Act Parliament has to meet at least once every 3 years, couldn’t be dissolved without its own consent
Archbishop Laud Anglican Prayer Book (Book of the Common Prayer)
Star Chamber Suppressed the nobility
John Pym Leader of long parliament, criticized James I and Charles I. Charles tried to have him arrested.
Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of England after Charles I’s death, Puritan
Cavaliers Supported monarchy/ king
Roundheads Supported Puritans/ Parliament
New Model Army Oliver Cromwell took over army, made men into proper soldiers
Pride’s Purge All those who did not support the New Model Army were expelled from Parliament
Rump Parliament house of lords removed, only house of commons left
Levellers Smashed by cromwell, religious revolutionaries who wanted a more egalitarian society
Diggers Denied authority of parliament, rejected private ownership of land
Quakers Pacifists, believed in inner light in each person, rejected church authority, women allowed to play a more definitive role in preaching, fled England for America
Interregnum Time between kings in England (death of Charles I to rule of Charles II) , ruled by Oliver Cromwell
Protectorate In effect from 1653
Instrument of Government Only written constitution England ever had
Act of Settlement (1652) 2/3rds of best Catholic land in Ireland given to protestants
Cromwell invaded scotland in 1651 52, puritans put strict moral code in place, alienated the people against Cromwell
Restoration Charles II restored to throne in 1660, monarchy, house of lords, and church of england restored
Charles II Son of Charles I, made peace with parliament before ruling
Tories Nobles who supported monarchy over parliament, conservative
Whigs Middle class, puritans, favored religious toleration, liberal
Clarendon Code – 1661 Four acts passed in England during the ministry of Edward Hyde, 1st earl of Clarendon, designed to cripple the power of the Nonconformists
Test Act of 1673 Excluded all those unwilling to receive sacrament of church of england
Habeas Corpus Act 1679 Outlawed quartering of soldiers in homes
“Killing Time” The last part of Charles II’s reign because he killed so many Scots
James II Brother of Charles II, inherited throne at 55, Catholic, gives Catholics important governmental positions
Declaration of Indulgence 1688 Gave religious worship to Catholics
Mary James II’s Protestant daughter, married to William of Orange, invited to rule England, takes over in Glorious Revolution
Anne Daughter of James II, sister of Mary (younger), also Protestant
William of Orange Husband of Mary, jointly ruled England with her, originally from Netherlands
Glorious Revolution Peaceful transfer of power from James II (Catholic) to his daughter and her husband
Bill of Rights 1689 William and Mary had to accept this to rule, made England a constitutional monarchy
Toleration Act 1689 Worship for Protestant non
Act of Settlement 1701 If William or sister
George I Hanoverian heir to throne of England. Didn’t know much english, didn’t care about English government, cared about what was going on in Germany, cabinet system evolves in England
Act of Union 1707 Joined England and Scotland into Great Britain
Cabinet System Leading ministers (esp. house of commons) made policy and conducted business of the country
Robert Walpole First prime minister of England
John Bodin Philosophe, member of Parlement, proponent of absolutism
Thomas Hobbes English philosopher, social contract theory, men are fundamentally bad
Bishop Bossuet Preach to Louis XIV, strong advocate of absolutism and the divine right of kings
“Divine Right of Kings” Kings have God
absolutism Sovereignty embodied in one person
Henry IV – Henry of Navarre Starts process of absolutism in France, strengthened institutions, encouraged colonization, weakened nobility
Edict of Nantes Issued by Henry IV, gave Huguenots many rights, could worship publicly in most places (except Paris).
“Nobility of the Sword” Old nobility, weakened by Henry IV by not allowing them to influence the royal council
“Nobility of the Robe” New middle class, paid for their positions
Duke of Sully Henry IV’s finance minister, laid down power of monarchy through mercantilism
mercantilism A country exports more than it imports
Marie de’ Medicis Wife of Henry IV, mother of Louis XIII, ruled in his place, exiled by him
Louis XIII Son of Henry IV, Richelieu is chief minister
Cardinal Richelieu Chief minister of Louis XIII, politique, weakened power of nobles, goal was to make France most powerful country in Europe
politique Person who allies himself with whatever religion/group is best suited to his goals
intendant system Each of 32 districts in France watched over by indendants
Peace of Alais Huguenots lost fortified cities, Protestant armies, but could still worship
Thirty Years’ War France gets involved due to Richelieu to get rid of the Habsburgs
Louis XIV – the “Sun King” Takes over at 5, had one of longest rules, absolutism reached zenith, built Versaille, used as political tool, Mazarin ruled in place until he was of age
Cardinal Mazarin Successor of Richelieu, very harsh, series of revolts against him
The Fronde Rebellion of nobles against the king, king had to compromise with nobility, economy destroyed, spurred Louis’ absolutism
Estates General Parliament of France, never called during Louis XIV’s reign
Corvee Law that required peasants to work for a certain amount of time on public works
Versailles extremely grandiose palace of Louis XIV, a reason for France’s economic problems
Edict of Fountainbleau Revoked Edict of Nantes, took away much Huguenot freedom
Jansenists opposition to the theology and political influence of the Jesuits
Bullionism Wealth defined as amount of precious metals owned
Jean Baptiste Colbert Louis XIV’s greatest economic advisor
Balance of Power nonexistent
William of Orange stadtholder of Netherlands, invited to be king of England, alliance against France
War of Devolution (First Dutch War) Louis XIV wanted his Catholic wife to inherit Netherlands
Second Dutch War Fought with England for control over trade routes and the seas
Peace of Nijmegan Louis XIV invades Netherlands, war ends with this, France gains territory including the Franche
War of the League of Augsburg defensive war against France
War of the Spanish Succession France went in with poor finances and under
Battle of Blenheim English victory in War of Spanish Succession, won by John Churchill and Eugene of Savoy, saved Vienna
Treaty of Utrecht France made peace with England after War of Spanish Succession
asiento Gave Spain monopoly in supplying slaves to other countries
Bourbons and War of the Spanish Succession Charles II left Spanish throne to Philip, Duke of Anjou, grandson of King Louis XIV of France (Bourbons), main rivals were Bourbons
Habsburg Empire: Bohemia, Austria proper, Hungary (Magyars) Three major land holdings of the Habsburgs, very diverse, made unification hard
Ferdinand II took control of Bohemia
Ferdinand III Consolidated Austrian empire
Leopold I Tried to restrict Protestants, repelled Turks from Vienna
Siege of Vienna Turks attacked Vienna led by Suleiman, Leopold I repelled them
Prince Eugene of Savoy Led Austria to victory over Ottomans
Emperor Charles VI Saved from Spanish expansion because he allied with Britain, but didn’t have a male heir, passed crown to daughter Maria Theresa, issued Pragmatic Sanction
Pragmatic Sanction issued by Charles VI, it was to secure the throne for his daughter Maria Theresa in order to continue the Hapsburg line; it failed because it failed to provide for an army or money
Maria Theresa Charles VI’s daughter, she inherited the throne for a while until it eventually crumbled because of her lack of a treasury and army
Brandenburg Prussia grew out of here, ruler of Brandenburg was one of 7 electors of holy roman empire
House of Hohenzollern Rulers of Prussia, took name from castle
Frederick William “The Great Elector” Calvinist, gave rights to catholics and jews, admired swedish system of government, economic power of netherlands
Junkers landowning aristocracy of Prussia who caused a big struggle; eventually kind of “hushed” when they joined the military and were granted special privileges for doing so
Frederick I first king of Prussia, most popular of Hohenzollerns, wanted to imitate Louis XIV, founded university, fought in 2 wars against louis XIV to maintain balance of power
King of Prussia title bestowed upon Frederick I by Leopold I for his help in War of Spanish Succession
Frederick William I – Soldiers’ King, made largest steps toward absolutism, Calvinist, obsessed with finding tall soldiers for his army, infused military to prussian society
“Sparta of the North” Nickname of Prussia because of the high degree of militarism in society
Frederick II Frederick the Great, patron of arts, made Prussia foremost military power in Europe, enlarged Prussia’s territories, enlightened
Slavs Original inhabitants of Russia, farmers
Varangians/ Rus came from the North in about 800; assimilated and intermingled with the Slavs
Rurik first Varangian king who was invited by the Slavs; founded city of Novgorod
Novgorod founded by Rurik in 862
Oleg noble that moved south to Kiev, a city on the Nibur River; it allowed for the Russians to sail down towards Constantinople, and began the association between the Russians and the Byzantines
Kiev Was on Neva river, allowed russians to sail down river into the sea and find their way to Constantinople
Constantinople Byzantines lived there, started to interact with Russians
Princess Olga citizen of Kiev who went to Constantinople and converted to Christianity; governed Kiev until her son Svyatoslav ruled
Svyatoslav Son of Princess Olga that ruled from 955
Vladimir Grandson of Princess Olga that ruled Russia; sent out emissaries to research major world religions and chose Orthodox Christianity as Russian religion; he was fond of political ties to Constantinople
Yaroslav the Wise Vladimir’s son who improved Kiev through marriage of his daughters to Western European leaders; built first library at Kiev, Kiev’s problems started after his death
Mongols invaders from Central Asia; only wished to collect tribute
Genghis Khan leader of Mongols; divided empire among his sons
Batu Khan son of Genghis Khan; his rule was the Khanate of the Golden Horde
Khanate of the Golden Horde rule of Batu Khan
Alexander Nevsky local lord who crushed revolts against Mongols and collected tribute for them
Daniel son of Alexander Nevsky
Moscow located at junction of three rivers, bringing commerce to Russia
Prince Ivan I gained gratitude from Mongols; given title of Great Prince; collected taxes from all Slavic people, causing people to call him “Ivan Money Bags”; moved Church to Moscow, gaining allies in the Church
Ivan III “The Great” Developed Moscow into modern state; married niece of last Byzantine emperor and called himself Czar; broke from Mongols
Battle of Kulikovo bloodless battle between Mongols and Russian people under Ivan III
“Third Rome” Moscow became the Third Rome
Ivan IV – “The Terrible” Grandson of Ivan III, officially became Czar and married Anastasia Romanov; began territorial expansion in Far East and Baltic Region
Cossacks Peasants who went to neighboring territories
“Time of Troubles” After Ivan the Terrible dies, Russia endures famine, cossacks killing nobles, Sweden and Poland conquered russia
Michael Romanov Ivan’s grand
“Old Believers” Heart of orthodox church, persecuted by the government
Peter the Great Ruled on his own at age 22, he was 7 feet tall, tried to build up military, set up new table of ranks, crowning achievement was St. Petersburg
Strelski Moscow guards who had overthrown previous leaders, defeated by Peter
Great Northern War Fought Sweden under Charles XII. Sweden wins most of early war, but under treaty of Nystad, russia gains latvia and estonia
“Window on the West” Russia gains Latvia and Estonia, now has trade opening with West
Table of Ranks Used by Peter the Great, gave people new ranks
St. Petersburg Crowning achievement of Peter, becomes capital of Russia, 100,000 people died while building it
Created by: swimmingninja42