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Chapter 6 - Muscles

QuestionAnswer
Contractility The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
Excitability The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
The ability to be stretched Extensibility
The ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched Elasticity
Epimysium Connective tissue sheath that surrounds each skeletal muscle
Connective tissue located outside of the epimysium that surrounds and separates the muscles Fascia
Numerous visible bundles of muscle fibers Fasciculi
Loose connective tissue that surrounds the fasciculi Perimysium
Muscle Cells Muscle Fibers
Connective tissue sheath that surrounds each fiber Endomysium
Mybrofils Threadlike structures that extend from ne end of the fiber to the other
Thin myofilaments that resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together Actin Myofilaments
Thick myofilaments that resemble bundles of minute golf clubs Myosin Myofilaments
The basic structural and functional unit of the muscle Sarcomere
Attachment site for actin Z Line
Light are on each side of the Z Line I Band
The darker central region in each sarcomere A Band
Light area in the center of each sarcomere H Zone
Dark staining band in the center of the sarcomere M Line
The charge difference across the membrane Resting Membrane Potential
The brief reversal back of the charge Action Potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor Neurons
Each axon branch that connects to the muscles Neuromuscular Junction or Synapse
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates Motor Unit
The enlarged nerve terminal Presynaptic Terminal
The space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell Synaptic Cleft
The muscle fiber Postsynaptic Terminal
Vesicles that secrete acetylcholine Synaptic Vesicles
Neurotransmitter that causes the muscle to contract Acetylcholine
Enzyme that causes the muscle to relax Acetylcholinesterase
The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction Sliding Filament Mechanism
A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers Muscle Twitch
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction Lag Phase
The time of contraction Contraction Phase
The time during which the muscle relaxes Relaxation Phase
Where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing Tetany
The increase in number of motor units being activated Recruitment
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate
ATP is produced in the... Mitochondria
ADP Adenosine Diphosphate
Without oxygen Anaerobic Respiration
With oxygen Aerobic Respiration
The amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells Oxygen Debt
Results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster that it can be produced in the muscle cells Muscle Fatigue
2 types of muscle contraction Isometric and Isotonic
The length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process Isometric
The amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes Isotonic
Constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time Muscle Tone
Fibers that contract quickly and fatigue quickly Fast-twitch Fibers
Fibers that contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue Slow-twitch Fibers
The most stationary end of the muscle Origin
The end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement Insertion
The portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion Belly
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another Antagonists
If one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement Prime Mover
Muscle that raises the eyebrows Occipitofrontalis
Muscle that closes the eyelids Orbicularis Oculi
"Kissing Muscles" Orbicularis Oris and Buccinator
Muscle that puckers the lips Orbicularis Oris
Muscle that flattens the cheeks Buccinator
Muscle responsible for smiling Zygomaticus
Muscle responsible for sneering Levator Labii Superioris
Muscle responsible for frowning Depressor Anguli Oris
Another word for chewing Mastication
2 muscles responsible for chewing Masseter and Temporalis
Muscle that moves the tongue Extrinsic
Muscle that changes the shape of the tongue Intrinsic
Prime mover lateral neck muscle Sternocleidomastoid
Muscles help produce... heat
Muscle Fiber Is a single cylindrical cell
Highly ordered units Sarcomeres
A neuromuscular junction is formed by... An enlarged nerve terminal resting in an indentation of the muscle cell membrane
Acetylcholine diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the postsynaptic terminal causing.. A change in the postsynaptic cell
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus... Until that stimulus reaches threshold
Created by: tbf_00