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Unit 2G

Special Senses and Receptors

Structures that are specialized to recieve enviromental stimuli and generate nerve impulses Receptors
Receptors initiate nerve impulses; these impulses are then conducted to the ? CNS
Sensation and the interpretation of stimuli are dependent on interpretation of the ? Brain
How many types of receptors are there ? 6
The 6 types of receptors Chemoreceptors, Mechanoreceptors , Proprioceptors , Thermoreceptors, Pain receptors, Photoreceptors.
Type of receptor that are sensitive to chemical substances in the immediate are ? Chemoreceptors
Type of receptor that are stimulated by mechanical forces, like pressure Mechanoreceptors
Type of receptor that sense the degree of muscle contraction, the movement of ligaments , and the stretch of tendons Proprioceptors
Type of receptor that are stimulated by changes in temprature Thermoreceptors
Type of receptors that sense pain and what are thy also called Pain Receptors, Nociceptors
The 2 types of senses are ? Somatic senses and Special senses
Senses that are associated with the skin, muscles, and joints are called Somatic senses
Proprioception is the sense of knowing ? the position of the limbs
Senses organs for taste, smell, vision, equilibrium and hearing are called Special senses
The skin contains receptors for? (TPPT) Touch, Pressure, Pain , Temperature
In the skin ________ occurs when a receptors becomes accustomed to the stimulation and stops generating nervous impulses, even tho the stimulus is still preasent Adaptation
example of adaptation ? after putting on a sock , we no longer feel its preasence
___ ___ are groupings of cells found in the tongue ______, and open at a taste ____. Taste buds, epithelium, pore
5 types of taste Bitter, Sour, Sweet, Salty, Umami,
where are each type of taste located on the tongue ? THEY ARE EVERYWHERE
what is our sense of smell dependent on Olfactory cells
where are the olfactory cells found ? on the roof of the nasal cavity
Olfactory cells are ________ neurons Modified
The eye ball is and _______ sphere about ____ cm in Diameter elongated, 2.5
3 layers or coats of the eyeball ? Sclera, Choroid, Retina
The outer layer of the Eyeball Sclera
The Sclera is (COLOR?) and fibrous execept for the transparent _____. White, Cornea
The cornea is known as the ? Window of the eye
The middle layer of the eyeball is the Choroid
The Choroid is dark, thin (COLOR?)layer, is vascular and absorbs ____ light rays Brown, stray
Towards the front the chorioid _____ and forms the ring shaped____ bodies thickens, Ciliary
The ciliary bodies contain the ciliary ____ , which controls the _____ of the lens for near and far vision. Muscles, shape
The Choroid becomes a thin, circular, muscular _____ diaphargm called the ___ pigmented, iris
What part of the Eye/Choroid regulates the size of the pupil ? Iris
the hole in the center of the iris through which light passes into the eyeball is called ? Pupil
The lens, attached to the ciliary body via _____, divides the cavity of the eye into ___ smaller cavities( Posterior and anterior Cavities ) Ligaments, 2
The Posterior Cavity lies behind the ___ Lens
Clear gelatinous material that fills the posterior cavity is called Vitreous Humor
The anterior cavity lies posterior to the ____ and anterior to the _____ Cornea, Lens
The clear WATERY fluid that fills the the Anterior cavity is called Aqueous Humor
The inner layer of the eye that contains Rods and Cones is called the Retina
The fibers of the ganglionic cells pass in front of the retina , forming the ____ nerve , which pierces the____ of the eye as it exits posterior toward the _____. Optic, layers, brain.
There are NO ___ or ___ where the optic nerve passes through the retina . This is called ____ _____ where vision is impossible. cons,rods, blindspot(Optic disc)
The retina contains a very special region that contains ONLY cones this special region is called Fovea Centrallis
In the Fovea Centrallis vision is most acute
which disease do the capillaries to the retina burst and blood spills into the vitreous humor. This blinds many people between 20-72 years old Diabetic Retinopathy
what disease occurs when the eye drainage system fails, so fluid builds up. This destroys the nerve fibers responsible for peripheral vision Glaucoma
Most common cause of damage to the eye is carless use of contact lenses
People who smoke have an increased risk of ? cataracts
wear sunglasses that absorb what type of light ? Ultraviolet
Glasses with larger lenses offer better ______ than smaller lenses Protection
The 2 functions the ear preforms equilibrium(balance) and hearing
3 divisions of the ear Outer, middle, inner
The outer ear consists of the ______ (external flap made of cartilage and skin) and the _____ _____ pinna, auditory canal
the middle ear BEGINS with the _______ membrane (eardrum), and ENDS at a wall containing the ____ ______ (the round window is found near this area and it allows fluid in the cochlea to move) Tympanic, Oval window
the 3 small bones are found (in middle ear)between tympanic membrane and the oval window are ? these bones are called ? Malleus, Incus , Stapes (ossicles)
Malleus, Incus, stapes are also called hammer, anvil, Stirrup
The malleus attaches to the _______ _____ and the stapes contacts the ____ ____ tympanic membrane, oval window
The 3 regions of the inner ear Semicircular canals , cochlea , vestibule
the 2 regions of the inner ear that are involved in equilibrium Semicircular canals and the vestibule
region involved in hearing ? cochlea
the cochlea is shapes like a ____ and is lined with small hairs called ______ Snail, stereocillia
The movement of ______ transmits sensations to our brain to interpret as sound stereocillia
transmission of sound vibrations gets _____ as sound travels through the ear Weaker
The Eustachian tube is also know as the _____ tube auditory
The Eustachian tube extends from the middle ear to the ? nasopharynx
The Eustachian tube permits equalization of air ____ when we _____ or _____ pressure, swallow , yawn
WHAT aids in preventing stereocillia damage, witch results in age-associated nerve defenses Limiting exposure to loud nosies
Any noise above __ decibels may damage hair cells of the organ of ____, and cause them to dissapear. 80, Corti
The first hint of danger could be temporary hearing loss, a "full" feeling in the ears, nosies sounding muffled or ________ (Ringing in the ears) Tinnitus
what can result into IMMEDIATE hearing loss short INTENSE noises, Gun shot or explosion
what drugs increase sensitivity to loud noises ? Anticancer drugs , and some Antibiotics
Created by: osabdelr