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Chapter 17

AP Euro - Absolutism in Eastern Europe to 1740

Holy Roman Empire religious divisions due to the Reformations and religious wars in 16th and 17th centuries split Germany among Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist princes
Ottoman Empire could not maintain possessions in eastern Europe and the Balkans in the face of Austrian and Russian expansion.
Suleiman the Magnificent was perhaps the most powerful ruler in the world during the 16th century
Janissary Corps those Christian slaves who were not selected for the Ottoman bureaucracy served loyally instead in Turkish army
Poland-Lithuania was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation, of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the king of Poland and the grand duke of Lithuania.
liberum veto Voting in Polish Parliament had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom.
serfdom the status of peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
robot In certain regions, peasants were required to work 3-4 days without pay per week for their local lord.
Hapsburg Empire (Austrian Empire) Ruler of Austria was traditionally selected as Holy Roman Emperor After War of Spanish Succession and the Treaty of Utrecht, the Spanish throne was now occupied by the Bourbons; Habsburg power was concentrated in Austria.
Bohemia Reorganization of this was a major step towards absolutism.
Austrian poper Old hereditary provinces of this were centralized by Ferdinand II.
Hungary The thirds and largest part of its dominion.
Leopold I 1658-1705 Severely restricted Protestant worship
Siege of Vienna, 1683 Successfully repelled Turks from gates of Vienna in 1683.
Pragmatic Sunction Issued by Emperor Charles VI, ensured that the Habsburg hereditary possessions could be inherited by a daughter.
Prussia Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Hohenzollerns relating to a princely German family that reigned in Prussia from 1701–1918 and in Germany from 1871–1918.
Frederick William, the “Great Elector” 1640-1688 Strict Calvinist but granted religious toleration to Catholics and Jews Ongoing struggle between Sweden and Poland for control of Baltic after 1648 and wars of Louis XIV created atmosphere of permanent crisis.
Junkers formed the backbone of the Prussian military officer corps; these nobles and landowners dominated the Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia
"King of Prussia" Frederick I Most popular of Hohenzollern kings
Frederick William I "The Soldier's King" Most important Hohenzollern regarding the development of Prussian absolutism Infused militarism into all of Prussian society
“Sparta of the North” Prussia became known as this.
Muscovy Began to emerge as the most significant principality that formed the nucleus of what later became Russia.
Boyars Russian nobles
Ivan III (“the Great”) 1480, ended Mongol domination of Muscovy Established himself as the hereditary ruler of Muscovy
“Third Rome” Attempted to make Moscow the new center of the Orthodox Church.
Ivan IV (“the Terrible”) Began westernizing Muscovy For 25 years, he fought unsuccessful wars against Poland-Lithuania Reduced the power of the boyars
Cossacks Many peasants fled the west to the newly-conquered Muscovite territories in the east and formed free groups and outlaw armies.
“Time of Troubles” followed Ivan IV's death in 1584.
Romanov Dynasty Lasted from the ascent of Michael Romanov in 1613 to the Russian Revolution in 1917.
Michael Romanov 1613-1645 Favored the nobles in return for their support Expanded Russian empire to the Pacific Ocean in the Far East
“Old Believers” Resisted influx of new religious sects from the west
Peter the Great 1682-1725 His sister, Sophia, ruled as his regent early on. Military power was his greatest concern.
Strelski Revolt of the Strelski put down by Peter in 1698 Moscow guards had overthrown previous leaders.
Great Northern War Russia vs. Sweden. Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies. Treaty of Nystad is where Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its Window on the West in the Baltic Sea
“Window on the West” Peter's desire for warm water ports to the West for trade, defense and opening up of Russia to Westernization/modernization. Goes to war with Swedes and Turks to try to achieve this. St. Petersburg becomes his window on the west.
Table of Ranks set educational standards for civil servants, Peter sought to replace old Boyar nobility with new service-based nobility loyal to the tsar
St. Petersburg One of Peter's crowning achievements Sought to create a city similar to Amsterdam and the Winter Palace with the grandeur of Versailles The capital of Russia
Winter Palace Residence of Russian Monarchs
Created by: Jrod42