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Renaissance Transition from Medieval times to the early modern world.
Humanism Intellectual movement during Italian Renaissance.
Humanities Subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history.
Classical Studies Greek and Roman History
Urban Society Trade assumed greater importance.
Bourgeoisie Middle class
Secular Having to do with worldly rather than religious matters.
Patrons Financial supporters of the arts.
Mercenaries Soldiers serving in a foreign army for pay.
Lorenzo de Medici Major patron of the arts in his city state of Florence ("The Magnificent")
Francesco Petrarch Translated classics invented the sonnet.
Baldassare Castiglione Wrote The Book of the Courtier
The Book of the Courtier Describes manners, skills, learning, and virtues that members of the court should have.
Niccolo Machiavelli Wrote guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power.
The Prince Written by Niccolo Machiavelli - how to get power and keep it.
Vernacular Literature Everyday language of ordinary people.
Dante Vernacular poet, wrote Divine Comedy
Geoffrey Chaucer Wrote Canterbury Tales - vernacular stories.
William Shakespeare Poet and Playright
Johann Gutenberg Printed first complete edition of the Bible using a printing press with moveable type.
Fresco Paint right on the wall while plaster is still wet (ex: Leonardo Da Vinci - The Last Supper).
Perspective Techniques for representing both humans and landscape allowed Renaissance artists to create realistic art.
Chiaroscuro Use of lighting effects - black and white; mixing different shades.
Oil Pants Mix better; gave more colors.
Peita Pity
Middle Ages 500 AD/CE-1500 AD/CE - Civilization's "mid-life crisis" - transition from ancient to modern
Early Middle Ages (500-1000 AD) Known as the dark ages. Best known for feudalism and the rise of the Catholic Church
Feudalism Social system based on birth, land, and loyalty.
Feudal Contract agreement between a lord (who gave land) and a vassal (who gave loyalty/service)
Chivalry Code of conduct for knights.
Nobles vs Serfs 10% were nobles/lords, 90% peasants/serfs
Life Expectancy Average life expectancy was 30 years - concern with afterlife
Catholic Church Survived the fall of Rome, unifying elements in Europe, acted as a go between for man and God, determined salvation
Later Middle Ages (1000-1500 AD) Major events: Crusades, town life, Magna Carta, and Black Death
Crusades (wars of the cross) 1096-1204 - cause was control of the Holy Land/Jerusalem, main result was increased travel and trade between east and the west
Town Life population shift from towns to cities, trade opened up, social mobility, rise of bourgeoisie (middle class)
Magna Carta 1215- Great Charter, signed by King John of England. Three essential ideas: even kings must follow the law, listening to individual rights, taxation must be fair
Black Death 1348- bubonic plague, bacteria transmitted by flea bites, carried on trade ships by rats, 20-25 million killed (abt 1/3 of Europe's population)
Early Renaissance Art Most art was religious in nature and told stories
Sandro Botticelli The Birth of Venus
Donatello St. George, Gattamelata, David
High Renaissance art more classical/humanist ideas, studio system developed, bigger scale
Leonardo Da Vinci Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, various notebook sketches
Raphael St. George and the Dragon, La Belle Jardiniere, The School of Athens, Baldassare Castiglione
Michelangelo Pieta, David, Sistine Chapel, Moses, Medici Family Tomb, The Last Judgement, St. Peter's Basilica, The Deposition of Christ
Northern Renaissance realistic portraits; very detailed; symbolism and social comment
Albrecht Durer self portrait, A Young Hare, The Four Horsemen, The Bagpiper,
Pieter Breughel The Peasant Wedding, Hunters in the Snow, The Beggars
Rembrandt Philosopher in Meditation, self-portraits, The Three Crosses
Created by: mrsvaldez