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Joint (articulation) site where two or more bones meet andenable movement
Structural classification bases on how bony regions are separated
Fibrous joints fibrous tissue
Cartilaginous joints cartilage
Synovial joints joint cavity
How are Joints Classified By the type of tissue that binds them together and also by grouped according to the range of movement possible at the junctions betweenbones.
Functional classification degree of movement
Synarthrosis immovable jointsEx. Suture between the bones of the skull
Amphiarthrosis slightly movable jointsEx. Joints between the pubic bones of the pelvis & vertebrae
Diarthrosis freely movable joints
Fibrous Joints Bones united by fibrous tissue - 3 types:a. Syndesmosisb. Suturec. Gomphosis
Syndesmosis Bones bound by interosseous ligament- ampthriarthoric
Suture Between the flat bones of skull only- sutural ligaments- synarthrotic
Gomphosis Formed by union of cone-shaped bony process in a bony socket-synarthrotic
Periodontal ligament root to tooth fastened to the jawbone
Cartilaginous joints Hyaline of fibrocartilage unite bonesTwo Types:a. Synchondrosisb. Symphysis
Synchondrosis Hyaline cartilage untie bones-Temporary- cartilage band- epiphyseal plate-Permantet- between manubrium & 1st rib-Synarthrotic
Symphysis Articular surface covered by thin hyaline and fibrocartilage-Symphysis pubis (pelvis) & intervertebral disks (amphiarthrotic)
Synovial Joints Most jointsAllow free movement - diarthroticConsist of:- Articular cartilage- Joint cavity or capsule - Synovial membrane -secretes synovial fluid
General Structure of synovial joint: - Articular cartilage- Tubular joint capsule- Ligaments- Synovial membrane- Synovial fluid- Menisci- Burase
Articular cartilage Hyaline cartilage at ends of long bones
Tubular joint capsule - 2 layers of dense connective tissue- Holds together bones of synovial joint- Its fibers attach to periosteum
Ligaments - tough collagenous fibers - reinforce joint capsule - bind articular ends- May be inside fibrous layer of capsule or outside- Prevent excessive movement at the joint- Relatively inelastic
Synovial membrane - inner layer of joint capsule - loose connective tissue- Covers all surfaces within joint capsule except articular cartilage- Surrounds synovial cavity, closes sac
Synovial fluid - produced by synovial membrane- lubricates smooth cartilaginous surfaces within joint- Supplies articular cartilage with nutrients
Menisci - Between articular surfaces of some joints- Help cushion and distribute body weight (knee)
Bursae - Sac filled with synovial fluid- Patella of the knee & olecranon process of the elbow- Cushion - Aid in movement of tendons that glide over the bony portion of the joint
Rheumatoid arthritis - autoimmune disease- Affects joints & surrounding muscle, tendons, ligaments, & blood vessels- 10% total disability because of fibrous & bony ankylosis- Affects women 3 times more often then men
The 4 Stages of Rhemuatoid Arthritis Peak onset- 35 to 50 years old1. Synovitis – from congestion & edema2. Pannus – thickened layers & tissues invades joint capsule & bone3. Fibrous ankylosis – scar formation4. Calcification – bony ankylosis – total immobility
Osteoarthritis - wear & tear, obesity, inactivity- Common in hips & knees- Deterioration of joint cartilage
Gouty arthritis or gout high levels of uric acid
Scleroderma skin hardens and thickens
Gliding joints Bone surfaces slide over one another. (Joints in wrist & ankle)
Hinge joints allows movement in one direction changing the angle of the bones at the joint (elbow
Pivot joint allows rotation around length of bones.(Joints between the 1st & 2nd cervical vertebrae)
Condyloid allows movement in 2 directions.(joint b.t wrist & the bones of the forearm)
Ball and Sockect allows movement in many directions around a central point (hip & shoulder)
Saddle joint between the trapezuim and the metacarpal #1
flexion a decreas in the angle between 2 bonesex.- bending the fingers to close the hand
Extension Straightening motion that increase the angle between bonesex.- straightening the fingers to open the hand
Hyperextension excess extension of the parts at a joint, beyond the anatomical positionex.- bend the hand back
Dorsiflexion bending the foot at the ankle toward the shin ex.- bending the foot upward
Plantar flexioin bending the foot at the ankle toward the sole ex.- bending the foot downward
Abduction moving a part away from the midline
Adduction moving a part toward the midline
Supination turning the hand so the palm is upward
Pronation turning the hand so the palm is downward
Eversion turning the foot so the sole face laterally
Inversion turning the foot so the sole faces medially
Protraction moving a part fowardex.- thrusting the chin foward
Retraction moving a part backwardex.- pulling the chin backward
Elevation raising a partex.- shurring the shoulders
Depression lowering a partex.- drooping the shoulders
Created by: drewsgirl