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Chapter 17

18th Century Economy and Society

Seven Years' War A war fought in the middle of the eighteenth century between Prussia, supported by Britain, and an alliance that included Austria, France, and Russia and resulted in Prussia and Britain as victors
Treaty of Paris Ended the Seven years' war; Completely removed France from North America
Creoles Spaniards born in Latin America-came to rival the power of Spanish authorities
Mestizos Children born to Spanish fathers and Indian mothers
Agricultural Revolution An event that occurred in the 17th and 18th where society witnessed changes due to the agricultural characteristics
Open Field System A system where land was farmed as a community while some parts of land were allowed to lie fallow on any given year so that the soil can recover
Crop Rotation A system where a variety of crops are grown on a piece of land in sequential seasons.
The triangular trades Revolved around the West Indies in the Caribbean and included North American and Africa
The Dutch Republic During the first half of the 17th century Netherlands was the worlds dominant maritime power "Golden Age of the Netherlands"
Anglo-Dutch wars The three wars between 1663 and 1674 that damaged Dutch shipping and commerce
Slave Trade About 10 million Africans were transported to the new world in the 17th and 18 centuries
"Middle Passage" the sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the West Indies
bullionism countries sought to build up large reserves of gold or silver and prevent the flow of these precious metals out of their country
Bank of England provided an important source of capital for economic development
Act of Union, 1707 unified England and Scotland; the Scots sought the benefits of trade within the English empire
Navigation Acts were passed by Parliament to increase military power and private wealth
Rococo is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre.
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome.
Jacques-Louis David was an influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.
Arc de Triomphe is one of the most famous monuments in Paris. It stands in the center of the Place Charles de Gaulle, at the western end of the Champs-Élysées.
Classical Style(music) is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart He was also known as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart and was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era.
Franz Joseph Haydn He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio and his contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet.
Ludwig van Beethoven German composer and pianist.
"Spare the rod and spoil the child" if children are not physically punished when they do wrong, their personal development will suffer.
Edward Jenner English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine
Pietism a 17th century religious movement originating in Germany in reaction to formalism and intellectualism and stressing Bible study and personal religious experience
John Wesley An Oxford-educated son of an Anglican cleric who founded Methodism. He became a priest in the Church of England in 1725 and in 1729 joined a religious group started by his brother Charles Wesley in Oxford.
Methodism A religion founded by John Wesley. Insisted strict self-discipline and a methodical approach to religious study and observance. Emphasized an intense personal salvation and a life of thrift, abstinence, and hard work.
Jethro Tull English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.
seed drill created by Jethro Tull, it allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths; this boosted crop yields
Columbian Exchange The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Enclosure Movement The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Spinning Jenny A machine for spinning with more than one spindle at a time, patented by James Hargreaves in 1770.
Water Frame A name given to a water-powered spinning frame developed by Richard Arkwright, who patented the technological machine in 1769.
Spinning Mule A 1779 invention that spun tax tile fibers into yarn by an intermittent process.
Mercantilism An economic system in which the government controls the economy in order to increase the power and wealth of the nation.
Atlantic Economy Commercial exchange in the Atlantic mostly referred as the "triangle trade", designating a three-way transport of goods.
South Sea Bubble Caused financial ruin for many people, speculation in the company's stock that led to a great economic bubble.
Mississippi Bubble A financial fiasco that discredited the government where John Ball had increased the supply of paper money and implemented a Mississippi Company which monopolized Louisiana trade.
War of Spanish Succession A war (1701–14) fought by Austria, England, the Netherlands, and Prussia against France and Spain, arising from disputes about the succession in Spain after the death of Charles II of Spain.
Treaty of Utrecht Treaty that ended the war of Spanish succession between Louis XIV (France) and the rest of Europe.
Asiento Spanish surrendered control of West African slave trade to Great Britain.
Corn Laws in 1815 benefited landowners; were tariffs on imported grain during the early to mid-1800s designed to keep grain prices high to favour producers in Great Britain
population explosion Population increased in the late 1700s and throughout the 1800s- due to decrease in death rate, low infant mortality rates, improved sanitation, disappeared black death
Proto-Industrialization the cottage industry era that occurred before the industrial revolution
cottage industry Also known as putting-out system; manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory
flying shuttle one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving it allowed a single weaver to weave much wider fabrics, and it could be mechanized, allowing for automatic machine looms. It was patented by John Kay (1704–c. 1779) in 1733
Created by: birmingham