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Public Participation

AICP Exam Prep HCC - Public Participation and Social Justice

QuestionAnswer
What is Saul Alinsky known for in public involvement planning? Alinsky's Organizations
What are some characteristics of Alinsky's Organizations? power is basis for successful negotiations - social protest - arise and are effective where there are pressing social problems or where residents feel powerless
What is Paul Davidoff known for in public involvement planning? Advocacy Planning
What are some aspects of advocacy planning? assumes there is no overall, common, or identifiable public interest to be served in planning - advocates for interests of low income or minority groups
Who wrote "Ladder of Citizen Participation"? Sherry Arnstein
What are some aspects of "Ladder of Citizen Participation"? defines citizen participation in terms of amount of control citizens have over policy decisions
In "Ladder of Citizen Participation", participation is divided into what three categories? non-participation (no control - manipulation, therapy) - degrees of tokenism (informing, consulting, placation) - degrees of citizen power (partnership, delegated power, citizen control)
In "Ladder of Citizen Participation", what determines the degree of control that actually occurs? how much citizens really want control and the willingness of agencies to share control
What are some public participation techniques? meetings, presentations, workshops, surveys, visioning sessions, interviews
What different types of surveys are used in public participation? email, mail, telephone, in-person (face-to-face)
Email Survey easy and inexpensive, omits those without internet, allows respondents to answer at their own convenience
Mail Survey response rate quite low because people forget to return - can't be confident in results - allows respondents to answer at their own convenience
Telephone Survey inexpensive and allows for rapid data collection - requires carefully trained interviewers - may exclude come portion of the population from the sample
In-Person (Face-to-Face) Survey ideal for gathering qualitative data (opinions or perspectives) - requires a great deal of staff time - expensive - requires very careful training
Visioning Sessions develop vision for the community - define goals, objectives, and policies - takes place at the start of the process
What are some positive aspects of surveys? yields statistical precision, can be generalizable
What are some positive aspects of interviews? yields rich, descriptive data, personal approach ideal for some
What are some negative aspects of surveys? can be time consuming, low response rates limit usefullness
What are some negative aspects of interviews? easily biased, time consuming, difficult to record
What are some positive aspects of focus groups? usually representative sample of community, informal, inexpensive and fast
What is a negative aspect of a focus group? easily skewed
What is a visual preference survey? series of images that must be scored
What is a negative aspect of a visual preference survey? criticized for eliciting inaccurate measurements of community preference
What is the Delphi Method? views of each group are presented in successive rounds of argument and counter argument working towards a consensus
What is a Charette? short, intense, collaborative, interactive problem solving process for development of specific plans
What is a Design In? planners teach citizens how to design and/or plan communities and help citizens design a project or develop a plan - citizens learn to work with some of the tools of community design such as maps and photographs
How does Brainstorming work? a question is formulated and asked to a group - used to formulate goals & objectives and identify issues
What is Fishbowl Planning? citizens address themselves to proposals through workshop formats
What is social justice? seeks to ensure all people have access to the public process
What is an aspect of social justice? in seeking equity in the participation process, advocates take steps to ensure traditionally disenfranchised groups are included, particularly when policies and decisions may directly impact them and their future generations
What are some aspects of multi-cultural and gender issues? giving them a louder voice in public decision making, bringing diverse groups of people together to work toward a common goal,
What are the two viewpoints of minorities and sub-cultures? melting pot: each culture contributed to overall society - salad bowl: subcultures need to be allowed to remain and be included in society without attempts at assimilation by the majority
In social justice, what makes up the minority population? african-americans, hispanics, asians, american indians
In social justice, what makes up the low-income population? person whose median household income is at or below poverty guidelines
What are some other disadvantages populations in social justice? low literacy, English proficiency, Americans with disability
What are some aspects of negotiation? build community trust - amicable solution - don't hide behind law - know background of project - get to know people involved - can quell rumors and misinformation - don't reinvent the wheel
What are some aspects of coalition building? identify leadership of community - develop positive relationships with leaders - bring diverse groups together - reach out to disenfranchised groups - remain neutral - maintain interest through any contention that arises
Created by: hccovi2