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Wilms tumor Rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney - usually occurs in children.
dialysis Mechanical filtering process used to clease the blood of toxic substances when kidneys fail to function properly.
peritoneal Type of dialysis in which toxic substances are removed from the body by using a peritoneal membrane as the filter by perfusing (flushing) the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution.
kidney transplant Replacement of a diseased kidney with one that is supplied by a compatible donor(usually a family member or cadaver who has donated the kidney prior to death).
nephropexy Fixation of a floating kidney.
nephrostomy The passage of a tube through the skin and into the renal pelvis to drain urine to a collecting receptacle outside the body.
stent placement Insertion of a mesh tube into a natural passage conduit in the body to prevent or counteract a disease-induced, localized flow constriction.
ureteral stent placement Insertion of a thin narrow tube into the ureter (to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney)
urethrotomy Incision of a urethral stricture.
electromyography (EMG) Measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra.
cystoscopy (cysto) Examination of bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors and other growths and removal of polyps using a specialized endoscope.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Determines the amount of nitrogen in blood that comes from urea, a waste product of protein metabolism.
culture and sensitivity (C&S) Determines the causative organism of an infection and identifies how the organism responds to various antibiotics.
urinalysis (UA) Urine screening test that includes physical observation, chemical tests and microscopic evaluation.
ultrasonography (US) High-frequency waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure; also called ultrasound, sonography or echo.
bladder ultrasonography US produces images of the bladder to measure pre- and postvoid residual urine, determining bladder volume and incomplete bladder emptying.
intravenous pyelography (IVP) Imaging of the urinary tract after IV contrast medium; also called excretoryurography (EU).
nuclear scan Technique in which a tracer is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested or injected) and a specialized camera (gamma camera) is used to produce images of organs and structures.
renal nuclear scan Nuclear scan of the kidneys used to determine their size, shape and position.
voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) X-ray of the bladder and urethra (performed before, during and after voiding using a contrast medium)
lithotriptor A device that destroys urinary stones with lazer technology.
urethra A membranous tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
ureter A slender tube that conveys urine from the kidney to the bladder.
fistula Abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another.
anuria Absence of urine production or output.
mid-stream urine (MSU) Also called clean catch urine specimen; a urine specimen collected after cleansing oneself and discarding the first part of the urine stream in order to avoid contamination; used for culture and sensitivity tests.
renal pelvis An enlarged funnel-shaped extension of the ureter.
bladder An expandable hollow organ which acts as a temporary reservoir for urine.
ureteropyelostomy Anastomosis of ureter an renal pelvis.
end-stage renal disease Any type of kidney disease of little or no remaining kidney function, requiring dialysis or kidney transplant for survival.
bladder neck obstruction (BNO) Blockage at the base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra.
hematuria Blood in the urine.
renal artery Carries waste laden blood to the tubules within the kidney for purification.
interstitial cystitis (IC) Chronic inflammation of the bladder wall. (not caused by bacterial infection and is not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy) also called painful bladder syndrome.
calculi/kidney stones Commonly called stones; usually composed of mineral salts.
antispasmodics Decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder.
ureterectasis Dilation of the ureter.
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) Disorder caused by failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder. (usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter)
urinary system Eliminates harmful products in the blood and filters them through urination.
cystectomy Excision of the bladder.
nephron Filtering units in the kidney tissue that continually adjust body conditions to add or remove substances from the blood.
kidney Fist-sized organs in the abdominal cavity whose function is to cleanse or purify the blood.
filtrate Fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli. (into the Bowman capsule)
calcui/kidney stones Hard objects built up from salts and minerals in the urinary tract.
neurogenic bladder Impairment of bladder control due to brain or nerve conduction.
incontinence Inability to control urine elimination or bowel function.
retention Inability to void urine which is present in the bladder.
cystitis Inflammation of the bladder.
pyelitis Inflammation of the renal pelvis.
urethritis Inflammation of the urethra.
polycystic kidney disease (OKD) Inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys.
enuresis Involuntary discharge of urine; also called incontinence.
nephrolith Kidney stone.
indwelling Left in place.
plasma Liquid portion of blood that is filtered by the nephrons to remove dissolved wastes.
nephrotic syndrome Loss of large amounts of plasma protein. (due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane)
electromyography (EMG) Measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra.
electrolyte Mineral salt (sodium, potassium or calcium) that carries an electrical charge.
nonretention / straight catheter One inserted to drain urine and then removed.
urologist One who specializes in the study of the urinary system.
dysuria Painful or difficult urination, commonly described as a "burning sensation" while urinating.
Bowman capsule Part of the renal corpuscle; surrounds the glomerulus of the nephron.
residual Pertaining to that which is left as a residue.
renal Pertaining to the kidney.
nephrolithiasis Presence of a kidney stone.
nitrogenous waste Product of protein metabolism that includes urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine and ammonia.
cystocele Prolapsing or downward displacement of the bladder (due to weakening of the supporting tissues between a woman's bladder and vagina)
diuretics Promote and increase the excretion of urine.
pyuria Pus in the urine.
ureterovesicoustomy Reimplantation of a ureter into the bladder.
pyelolithotomy Removal of a stone from the renal pelvis by an incision.
ureterectomy Removal of a ureter.
urethrectomy Removal of the urethra.
potassium supplements Replace potassium due to depletion caused by diuretics.
kidney transplant Replacement of a diseased kidney with one that is supplied by a compatible donor.
urgency Sensation of the need to void immediately.
peristaltic wave Sequence of rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles of a hollow organ to force material forward and prevent backflow.
peritoneum Serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity (covers most of the organs within the cavity)
renal vein Structure which carries the blood away from the kidney.
urethropexy Surgical fixation of the urethra.
cystectomy Surgical removal of the urinary bladder.
urethroplasty Surgical repair of the urethra.
nephrolysis Surgical separation of an inflamed kidney from adhesions.
pH Symbol that expresses the alkalinity or acidity of a solution.
nuclear scan Technique in which a tracer is introduced into the body and a specialized camera is used to produce images of organs and structures.
calyx The cuplike division of the kidney pelvis.
glomerulus Microscopic cluster of capillaries within the Bowman capsule.
stricture The narrowing of an opening, tube or canal.
excretion The process of expelling material from the body.
hilum The recessed area of the kidney (where the ureter and blood vessels enter)
catheterization To insert a catheter into a cavity to remove body fluid.
elimination To remove, get rid of, exclude.
uremia Toxic condition of nitrogenous wastes in the blood.
antibiotics Treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes.
hemodialysis Type of dialysis uses an artificial kidney machine. It receives waste-filled blood, filters it and returns the dialyzed blood to the patient's bloodstream.
peritoneal dialysis Type of dialysis in which toxic substances are removed using the peritoneal membrane as the filter by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution.
urochrome Urine colour.
urethroscopy Visual examination of the urethra.
micturition Voiding
nephrotomography A study in which several planes of the kidney are visualized.
hydronephrosis Abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces (pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract)
cystoscopy (cysto) Examination of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology using a specialized endoscope.
Created by: Barbara Ross