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Plan Making

AICP Exam Prep HCC - Plan Making and Implementation 2

QuestionAnswer
Exaction costs levied on developers as a condition for receiving permission to develop in a community - reflect costs development is projected to impose on community - must further a legitimate public interest
Impact Fee directly related to impact of new development - used to fund capital facilities - collected from developers when building permit issued
Environmental Analysis - NEPA whenever US government takes a "major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment", an Environment Impact Statement is required
What are the 4 Sections of an Environmental Impact Statement? 1)Purpose and Need of Proposed Action statement, 2)Description of Affected Environment, 3)Range of Alternatives to proposed action, 4)Analysis of environmental impacts of each alternative
Clean Water Act controls all sources of water pollution in US - anyone seeking to discharge water pollutants into a body of water must apply for a permit to do so
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitting system for all point sources of water pollution
Ambient Regulations those relating to quality of water in receiving bodies of water
Effluent Regulations those imposing treatment requirements on all pollutants
Clear Air Act federal government sets ambient standards - states must promulgate emission regulations that will allow those standards to be met or exceeded
PSD Standards in addition to ambient and effluent standards - prevent significant deterioration of very high quality airsheds
What is a Growth Management Technique? ensures orderly development and preserves quality of life
How do Growth Management Techniques ensure orderly development and preserve quality of life? preserving open space and agricultural land, assessing visual and environmental impacts, promoting livable communities, controlling pace of growth
Concurrency can deny approval of new developments unless adequate public facilities have been provided - i.e. roads, water, sewer
Regional Urban Growth Boundary limit future sprawl around the periphery of the region
Local Urban Growth Boundary individual locality draws a boundary within its own borders and constrains future development to within that boundary
Rate of Growth Programs policies that limit the pace of community geographic expansion
What is a budget? allocating and spending tax dollars to provide services to the public which the citizenry would otherwise have to provide for itself
Aaron Wildansky quote on budgets "A budget may be characterized as a series of goals with price tags attached."
Budget Preparation Steps 1)estimate of available resources, 2)revenue forecasting, 3)estimating spending needs, 4)revenue sources
Estimate of Available Resources 1)how much cash available at start of fiscal year, 2)how much additional revenue raised during fiscal year, 3)how much cash available at end of fiscal year
Revenue Forecasting looking at what happened in past and eyeballing historical data into projections for the future
Estimating Spending Needs focus on individual units and their budget requirements
Revenue Sources general revenue sources and non-general revenue sources
General Revenue Sources tax and non-tax revenue
Non-General Revenue Sources utilities, liquor/lottery sales
Taxes - 3 Primary Functions 1)generating revenues to finance government goods and services, 2)redistribute income, 3)reducing income and spending when overall demand is excessive
Progressive Tax ratio of tax payments to income increases as income rises
Proportional (Flat) Tax ratio of tax payments to income is constant
Regressive Tax ratio of tax payments to income declines as income rises
Current Revenue (Pay As You Go) financing improvements from current revenue
Reserve Funds funds accumulated in advance
Bonding financing larger projects through the marketing and issuance of promises to pay - interest is paid through the life of the instrument
General Obligation Bonds sold to finance permanent types of improvements such as schools, municipal buildings, and parks - backed by full faith and credit of local govt - based on local govt's ability to cover debt in future
Revenue Bonds sold for projects, such as water and sewer, that produce revenues - not included in state imposed debt limits - not backed by full faith and credit - financed in long run by service charges and fees
Lease Purchase public works project constructed by private company then leased by municipality
Authorities and Special Districts provide a single service such as schools, water, sewer - formed to avoid restrictive local government debt limits
Special Assessments paid by those who directly benefit
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) provide front end funds in an area where large scale redevelopment is feasible
TIF Process district around development is designated with a tax base similar to surrounding area - tax rates established based on how property might be developed - area developed - higher tax rates from new development retire debt
Capital Budget finances larger projects - non-recurring investments in facilities or infrastructure
Capital Improvement Program guide to provision of capital improvements by balancing revenues, expenditures, and the sequencing of acquisition actions
Capital Improvement public facility which constitutes a major expenditure and a long life involving non-recurring expenditures
Operating Budget funds day to day operations - provision of services on a continual basis
Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS) organize spending by program rather than functional objects - program oriented with long range horizons that demand cost justification of alternatives against established need - emphasis on planning not budgeting
Management By Objective (MBO) goal and objective setting process between the administrator and subordinates - provides participants in public organization means to participate in decision making
Zero Base Budget (ZBB) each manager required to justify entire budget request in detail from scratch and shifts burden of proof to each manager to justify why any money should be spent
Policy Analysis and Decision Making requires examining and measuring significant benefits and costs - answers questions about purpose or intent of policy - evaluate impacts to quality of life factors
Subdivision Plans minor, consolidation, retracement - major, preliminary - design plan review - construction inspection - final plat approval & recording
Program Evaluation plan an evaluation strategy - before implementation, define problem & outcomes, document current conditions, identify objectives, identify alternatives and impacts, set benchmarks, define timeline
Basic Components of Communication Techniques message, audience, action, delivery mechanicm
Communication Delivery Mechanism Formats written reports, brochures, flyers, press releases, PowerPoint presentations, presentation boards, oral presentation, memoranda
Public/Private Intergovernmental Relationships improvements that benefit the development as well as the community
Public/Non-Profit Intergovernmental Relationships typically for housing, parks, or environmental purposes - land trusts
Public/Public Intergovernmental Relationships state govt may provide guidance, training, or technical assistance to local govt - federal govt may provide grants or contracts
Intergovernmental Relationship Benefits leveraging funds and resources available
Intergovernmental Relationship Obstacles differing work cultures
Stakeholder Relationships identifying stakeholders, continued involvement and updates
Created by: hccovi2