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WVSOM -- Anatomy

GI Tract Development

What are the 3 main branches of the celiac trunk? (Foregut) Splenic Artery Left Gastric Artery Common Hepatic Artery
Splenic Artery A -- Short gastric aa B -- Left gastroomental aa
Common hepatic artery 1 - Proper hepatic artery 2 - Gastroduodenal artery
Proper Hepatic heads to liver gives off right gastric artery
Gastroduodenal artery gives off right gastroomental and pancreaticoduodenal artery
How are regions of the gut differentiated? Based upon their blood supply
What are the 3 regions of the gut? Foregut Midgut Hindgut
Midgut arterial supply Superior mesenteric artery
5 main branches of the superior mesenteric artery Middle colic artery Right colic artery Ileocolic artery Jejunal aa. Ileal aa.
Foregut contains Abdominal esophagus stomach proximal duodenum liver pancreas gallbadder spleen
Midgut contains distal duodenum jejunum ileum cecum appendix ascending colon proximal 2/3 transverse colon
Hind gut contains Distal 1/3 transverse colon descending colon sigmoid colon rectum
Middle colic artery gives off marginal artery
Ileocolic artery gives off posterior cecal artery appendicular artery
Ileal aa gives off loops and arcades, vasa recta
Loops and arcades and vasa recta are important for absorption
More loops and arcades in the __________ than the ____________. Jujenum; ilium
Hindgut arterial supply inferior mesenteric artery
Inferior mesentaric artery gives off left colic artery Sigmoid artery superior rectal artery
Left colic artery gives off marginal artery
Venous Drainage Caval circulation Portal circulation
Caval circulation Drains structures associated with abdominal wall (kidneys, gonads, musculature). Drains into the inferial vena cava
Caval circulation is made up of: Single and Paired veins
Single Caval Veins Medial Sacral Vein
Paired Caval Circulation Inferior phrenic vein Renal vein Gonadal vein Common Iliac vein Lumbar vein
Portal circulation is made up of : portal vein Portocaval anastomoses
How many lumbar veins? 2-4
Portal vein gives off Superior mesenteric vein splenic vein left and right gastric vein inferior mesentaric vein
Inferior mesentaric vein gives off superior rectal vein
Beginning of gut formation Week 4 Tube from the oropharynx to cloaca
The endoderm makes up the _____________, ____________, and ____________. lines of gut tube Pancreas Liver
Splanchnic mesoderm makes up muscular and connective tissue associated with the gut
Tissue that covers teh gut tube is called the Peritoneum
A double later of the peritoneum that attaches to the gut tube to the body is called ________. mesentery
_______ attaches gut tube to dorsal body wall Dorsal Mesentary
____________ attaches gut tube to the ventral body wall. Ventral mesentary.
Attaches from tube to tube or tube to wall Ligament
Most of teh GI tract is ___________ Intraperitoneal
Intraperitoneal surrounded by peritoneum
Retroperitoneal only the anterior surface is covered by peritoneum
Are retroperitoneal organs mobile? no
Forgut embryonology 1. Anterior-posterior outgrowths 2. Stomach rotates 90 degrees 3. 1st part of duodenum
Anterior-posterior outgrowths Dorsal -> greater curvature Ventral -> lesser Curvature
Dorsal mesentery gives off spleen and pancreas (corsal and ventral buds) Greater omentum
When teh stomach rotates 90 degrees Liver rotates to right hand side Spleen rotates to the left side
______________ forms the boundary of _____________ Greater Omentum;Omental bursal
Omental bursa hole
Lesser curvature is on the right hand side3
lesser omentum has _____________ leading to the lesser sac omental foramen (foramen of winslow)
1st part of duodenum remains ___________ but the rest becomes ____________ intraperitoneal retroperioneal
Transition to the midgut is where the ________ enters into the duodenum common bile duct
The liver and gall badder develop from _______ the foregut as an outgrowth, the hepatic diverticulum
Pancreas develops from the dorsal and ventral pancratic buds
The spleen develops withing the dorsal mesogastrium
Forgut undergoes a ______ clockwise rotation 90 degree
Most of the duodenum becomes retroperitoneal
Midgut Embryology I U-shaped tube extends out to teh umbilcal cord U- tube rotates counterclockwise 90 degrees
Midgut Embroyology II U-Tube begins to return to the abdominal cavity Rotates another 180 degrees duodenum becomes secondarily retroperitoneal
Problems that can occur with midgut formation Malrotation (volvulus) Omphalocele
Midgut embryology summary midgut herniates out to umbilical cord rotates a total of 270 degrees counterclockwise
Hindgut embryology summary Next block cloaca differentiates into teh UG and GI systems
Innervation of teh gut Mostly autonomic (except esophagus)
Sympathetic Nerves Greater, lesser, least, and lumbar splanchnic nerves
Parasympathethic nerves Vagus nerve and Pelvic splanchnic nerve
Foregut Innervation sympathetics greater splanchnic nerve synapses with the celiac ganglion following the celiac trunk and its division
Midgut Innervation Sympathetics Lesser adn least Splanchnic Nerve synapsing with the superior mesentary and aortecosttal gaglia.They follow the superior associated arteries.
Foregut Innervation parasympathetics Vagus nerve and the afferent sensory is T6-T12
Midgut Innervation parasympathetics Vagus nerve and the afferents follow spinal cord levels
Hindgut innervation sympathetics least splanchnic Nerve that synapses in the inferior mesentaric and hypogastric plexus that follows the blood supply.
Hindgut innervation of parasympathetics Pelvic Splanchnic off of S2-S4. Afferent nerves run to T12-S4
Created by: tjamrose