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Pastry 2A (CSCA)

Lean Breads

SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE The species of yeast used to make baking yeast. Yeast is a one-celled microorganism of the fungus family.
COMPRESSED YEAST Also known as fresh yeast. Made up of yeast, starch and with 70% moisture content. Must be refrigerated. Self life of approximately 3 weeks.
ACTIVE DRY YEAST All moisture has been removed by hot air. Yeast is dormant and can be stored without refrigeration for several months.
INSTANT DRY YEAST Added directly to the dry ingredients without hydrating. The water in the bread formula activates the yeast.
STARTER METHOD Method of incorporating yeast by mixing one-half to one-third the total amount of flour and one-half the liquid with the yeast. This is then set aside and allowed to develop for as little as a few hours or for several days.
DIRECT METHOD Method of incorporating yeast with a little sugar and warm water, stirring and allowing the yeast to start to grow. After a few minutes it is then combined with the flour and other ingredients.
RAPID MIX METHOD Method of incorporating yeast by mixing the yeast directly in with the dry ingredients.
FERMENTATION The act of bread rising. Process of the yeast reproducing, creating CO2 & alcohol. Gas is trapped in the gluten framework,forms bubbles causing the dough to rise. There can be more than 1 fermentation of dough. Yeast + Carbohydrates (sugars) = Alcohol + C
BENCHING After punching down the dough allowing it to rest before shaping.
PROOFING OR PROVING The final rise after the dough has been shaped.
OVEN SPRING The final rise of one-third more that occurs in the oven.
VIENNESE OVEN This 19th century oven introduced moisture in the oven using high-pressure steam jets.
SOURDOUGH Any type of bread that uses natural leaven rather than yeast. Not as light as yeasted breads and has a sour-sweet flavor.
PULLMAN LOAF Fresh dough is placed in a rectangular tin and sealed with a lid. It results in compact bread which is good for sandwiches. The special Pullman pan has a lid that slides across the top to seal the dough inside and the dimensions are usually 13x4x4 inches.
FOCACCIA An Italian yeasted flat bread of Genovese origin made with plenty of extra virgin olive oil and sea salt. Eaten as a snack or as a replacement for bread. Usually accompanies salumi and cheeses as an appetizer or as bite-size pieces as an hors d’oeuvre.
BAGELS Created by a Jewish baker in Vienna in 1683, this yeasted dough is poached in salted water until the bagel rises, giving them the characteristic close texture and chewy crust.
PITA BREAD Middle-eastern flat yeasted bread. Bread puffs slightly during baking to form a hollow pocket that can be filled to make a type of sandwich.
WASHES Any type of coating or glaze applied to the bread product to improve its appearance. These can include eggs, milk/cream, water, sugar, and flour.
Created by: CSCAStudy