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Chapter 6 Proteins and Amino Acids

Protein in US diet 2/3 come from poultry, seafood, eggs, dairy products. More money more animal protein.
Plants and Animals protein, B vitamins, minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium
Building Blocks of Protein Amino Acid - central carbon bound to hydrogen (amino group)
Where do essential amino acids come from Diet and can not be synthesized by human body in amounts that meets the needs
Transamination when a non essential amino acid is not available from the diet, the body then produces the amino acid not available.
Peptide bonds chemical bonds that link amino acids together formed by amino acids and nitrogen.
Dipeptide bond between 2 amino acids
polypeptide bond between many amino acids
Protein made up of many polypeptides and folded into a 3-dimensional shape
Elongated Protein Shape connective tissue proteins & collagen
Spherical Protein Shape hemoglobin- needs protein to move oxygen (iron)
Altered protein shape function is disrupted
Digestion of Protein peptides bonds move to the mucsosa cells and are broken down into amino acids
Absorption of Protein amino acids travel from mucosa cells --> blood---> liver
How many Kcals in Protein 4 Kcals
Protein digestion and allergies protein is absorbed w/o complete digestion and can cause anaphylaxis. Soy, milk, eggs, nuts, wheat, shellfish, and peanuts are most common.
Most important organ for amino acid metabolism Liver
What happens when proteins are not metabolized properly ammonia build up
Protein Function speed up metabolic reactions, move substances in/out of cells (protein channel) , immune system (plasma proteins, contracts muscles, hormones are chemical messengers (insulin glucagon), regulate fluid and acid base balance
Kwashoirkor Protein deficiency, swollen belly
Marasmus Protein and energy deficiency, depletion of fat and wasting of muscles
PEM- Protein-energy malnutrition describes protein and protein/energy deficiency
Protein Excess long periods of excess can cause: hydration and kidney problems, bone health issues, kidney stones, increased risk of heart disease and cancer, liver can be damaged from overload.
PKU Phenulketonuria Inherited through defective gene, also comes from aspartame ( sugar substitute).
MSG - Monosodium Glutamate MSG contains glutamate bound to sodium, Chinese Restaurant Syndrome. Symptoms- flushed face, tingling or burning sensations, headache, rapid heartbeat, chest pain, and general weakness
Nitrogen balance healthy individual nitrogen in = nitrogen out
Nitrogen balance for elderly/ill Nitrogen in < Nitrogen out
Nitrogen balance for pregnancy/body builder Nitrogen in > Nitrogen out
Protein requirements .8g/kg body weight, Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range 10-35% of energy for adults, increase for pregnancy, growth, and lactation.
Protein Complementation Balance is key and variety important rice + beans will = amount of protein needed.
Vegan NO animal
Lactovegetarian NO animal but will consume dairy
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian NO animal but consume eggs and dairy products
Pescetarian NO animal but will consume fish
Semivegetarian NO red meat but will consume chicken, fish, and dairy.
Created by: sthomp17