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Chapter 16 Part 2

AP Euro - Constitutionalism

TermDefinition
Constitutionalism Government power is limited by law. There is a delicate balance between the power of government and the rights and liberties of individuals.
Gentry Wealthy landowners in the countryside who dominated politics in the House of Commons Relied heavily on legal precedent to limit the power of king on economic and political matters
House of Commons England's lower house in Parliament
Stuart Dynasty They ruled England for most of the 17th century. Although they exhibited absolutist tendencies, they were restrained by the growth of Parliament.
James I Ruled 1603-1625 Elizabeth I left no heir to the throne when she died in 1603. This male was next in line to assume the throne He was Scottish king who ruled England
"Divine Right" of Kings The doctrine that kings and queens have a God-given right to rule and that rebellion against them is a sin.
Charles I Ruled 1625-1649 Son of James I He claimed "divine right" theory of absolute authority for himself as king and sought to rule without Parliament Also sought to control the Church of England
Petition of Right, 1628 Parliament attempted to encourage the king to grant basic legal rights in return for granting tax increases.
"Short Parliament" 1640 - Scottish military revolt when Charles tried to impose the England Prayer Book on the Scottish Presbyterian church Charles needed new taxes to fight the war against Scotland, Parliament reconvened Charles disbanded Parliament after only a month
"Long Parliament" 1640-48 Desperate for money after the Scottish invasion of northern England in 1640, Charles finally agreed to certain demands by Parliament. The Puritans came to represent the majority of Parliament against the king's Anglican supporters
Archbishop Laud A leader of the persecution of Puritans
English Civil War Immediate cause: Charles tried to arrest several Puritans in Parliament but a crowd of 4,000 came to Parliament's defense In March 1642, Charles declared war against his opponents in Parliament
Cavaliers People who supported the king
Roundheads (Calvinists)People who opposed the king
Oliver Cromwell A fiercely Puritan Independent and military leader of the Roundheads, eventually led his New Model to victory in 1649.
New Model Army Formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.
Pride's Purge 1648: Elements of the New Model Army(without Cromwell's knowledge)removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians from Parliament leaving it with only 1/5 of its members remaining.
"Rump" Parliament Parliament without non-Puritans and Presbyterians, only having 1/5 of its members.
Levellers Radical religious revolutionaries; sought social and political reforms-a more egalitarian society
Diggers Denied Parliament's authority and rejected private ownership of land
Quakers Believed in an "inner light", a divine spark that existed in each person A. Rejected Church authority B. Pacifists C. Allowed women to play a role in preaching
Interregnum 1649-1660: Rule without king
Protectorate 1653-1659: Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector (in effect, a dictatorship) Dissolved Rump Parliament England divided into 12 districts Denied religious freedom to Anglicans and Catholics Allowed Jews to return to England in 1655
Restoration Began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Charles II While in exile, Charles agreed to abide by Parliament's decisions in the post-war settlement. Parliament was stronger in relation to the king that ever before in England Charles agreed to a significant degree of religious toleration Merry Monarch
Clarendon Code Instituted in 1661 by Monarchists and Anglicans Sought to drive all Puritans out of both political and religious life Test Act of 1673
Test Act, 1673 Excluded those unwilling to receive the sacrament of the Church of England from voting, holding office, preaching, teaching, attending universities, or assembling for meetings
Habeas Corpus Act, 1679 Whig Parliament sought to limit Charles' power Enabled judges to demand that prisoners be in court during their trials Required just cause for continued imprisonment Provided speedy trials Forbade double jeopardy
James II Ruled 1685-1688 Inherited the throne at age 55 from his brother Charles II He sought to return England to Catholicism Appointed many Catholics to high positions in government and in colleges
"Glorious Revolution" The final act in the struggle for political sovereignty in England
William and Mary They were declared joint sovereigns by Parliament.
Bill of Rights 1689 England became a constitutional monarchy This became the hallmark for constitutionalism in Europe Kings could not be Roman Catholic Laws could be made only with the consent of Parliament Parliament had right of free speech
John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government(1690) A political philosopher He stated that the people created a government to protect their "natural right" of life, liberty, and property.
Toleration Act, 1689 Granted right to worship for Protestant non-conformists although they could not hold office Did not extend religious liberties to Catholics, Jews or Unitarians
Act of Settlement, 1701 If King William, or Anne died without children, the Crown would pass to the granddaughter of James I, the Hanoverian electress dowagers, or to her Protestant heirs. Stuarts were no longer in the line of succession
Act of Union, 1707 Formed Great Britain Within a few decades, Scotland transformed into a modern society with dynamic economic and intellectual growth
Great Britain United England and Scotland
Cabinet system Structure of this: Leading ministers, who were members of the House of Commons and had the support of the majority of its members, made common policy and conducted the business of the country The Prime Minister
Prime Minister A member of the majority, was the leader of the government
Robert Walpole The first Prime Minister in British history
United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic) 1st half of the 17th century was the "golden age" of the Netherlands The government was dominated by the bourgeoisie whose wealth and power limited the power of the state The government consisted of an organized confederation of 7 provinces
Stadholder Governor
Dutch Reformed Church Calvinism split into this and Arminianism This religion were the majority of people and the most powerful
Arminianism Calvinism without the belief of predestination
Amsterdam The banking and commercial center of Europe
Dutch East India Co. Organized as cooperative ventures of private enterprise and the state
Gustavus Adolphus Ruled 1611-1632 Reorganized the government Swedish
Created by: Jrod42