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Ap Euro

Constitutionalism

TermDefinition
constitutionalism government power is limited by law
gentry wealthy landowners in the countryside who dominated politics in the House of Commons
House of Commons England's lower house in parliment
Stuart dynasty ruled England for most of the 17th century
James I Elizabeth I left no heir, James VI of Scotland was next in line to assume throne;thus England got a Scottish king
“divine right” of kings claimed "no bishop;no king" in response to Calvinists who wanted to eliminate system of Bishops in the church of England
Charles I son of James I, like james claimed divine right
Petition of Right, 1628 Parliament attempted to encourage the king to grant basic legal rights in return
“Short Parliament” A Scottish military revolt 1639-40 occurred when Charles attempted to impose the English prayer book on the Scottish Presbyterian church
“Long Parliament” desperate for money after the Scottish invasion of Northern England in 1640, Charles finally agreed to certain demands by Parliment
Archbishop Laud the leaders of the persecution of puritans were to be tied and executed
English Civil War Cause: Charles tried to arrest several Puritans, in Parliament but a crowd of 4,000 came to Parliaments defence
Cavaliers supported the king
Roundheads opposed the king
Oliver Cromwell a fiercely puritan independent and military leader of the roundheads
New Model Army a division between Puritans and Presbyterians
Pride’s Purge Elements of the new model army removed all non-puritans and Presbyterians from parliment
“Rump” Parliament Due to Prides Purge, left only 1/5 members
Levellers radical religious revolutionests
Diggers denied parliament's authority and rejected private ownership of land
Quakers believed in an "inner light", a divine spark that existed in each person
Interregnum rule without king
Protectorate Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector(In effect, a dictatorship)
Restoration Under Charles II and JAmes II
Charles II parliament restored him to the throne
Clarendon Code Instituted in 1661, by monarchists and Anglicans, Sought to drive all puritans out of both political and religious life
Test Act, 1673 excluded those unwilling to receive the sacrament of the church of England from voting, holding office, preaching, teaching, attending universities, or assembling for meetings
Habeas Corpus Act, 1679 Whig Parliament sought to limit charles' power
James II Inherited the throne at age 55 from his brother Charles II
“Glorious Revolution” the final act in the struggle for political sovereignty in England
William and Mary Declared joint sovereigns by Parliment
Bill of Rights William and Mary accepted what became known as the "Bill of Rights",became the hallmark for constitutionalism in Europe
John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690) stated that the people create a government to protect their "natural rights" of life,liberty and property
Toleration Act, 1689 Granted right to worship for protestant non-conformists(Ex,Puritans,Quakers)although they could not hold office
Act of Settlement, 1701 If king William, or his sister-in-law, Anne, died without children, the crown would pass to the granddaughter of James I
Act of Union, 1707 United England and Scotland into Great Britan
Great Britain Formed because the Scots desperately desired access to England's trade empire and believed that it would fall behind if it did not enter into a union
Cabinet system Developed in the 18th century, Leading ministers made common policy and conducted the business of the country
Prime Minister a member of the majority, was the leader of the government
Robert Walpole is viewed as the first prime minister in British history
United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic) 1st half of the 17th century was the "golden age" of the Netherlands, the government was dominated by the bourgeoisie whose wealth and power limited the power of the state
stadtholder governor
Dutch Reformed church were the majority and the most powerful
Arminianism Calvinism without the belief in predestiation
Amsterdam became the banking and the commercial center of Europe
Dutch East India Co. organized as cooperative ventures of private enterprise and the state
Gustavus Adolphus ruled 1611-1632, reorganized the gov't
Created by: Jose_Martinez