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Absolutism (Ch. 16)

absolutism Belief that monarchs hold supreme power and are responsible only to God. King has all power People have no power Idea that a king gets his authority to rule directly from God. Kings gain power and centralized governments lose power
Jean Bodin (1530-96) - first to provide a theoretical basis for absolutist states - wrote during the 16th century French Civil Wars - believed that only absolutism could provide order and force people to obey government
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) - did not favor "divine right" - pessimistic view of human beings in a state of nature
Bishop Bossuet (1627-1704) - principal advocate of "divine right of kings" in France during Louis XIV - believed "divine right" mean king was placed on throne by God and owed his own authority to no man/group
“divine right” of kings king was placed on throne by God, therefore owed his authority to no man or group
First Estate clergy; 1% of population
Second Estate nobility; 3-4% of population
Third Estate bourgeoisie (middle class), artisans, urban workers, and peasants
Henry IV First Bourbon king of France, ruled 1589-1610, and converted to Catholicism from Calvinism to bring peace after the French Civil War. He passed the Edict of Nantes and was also assassinated in 1610.
Bourbon dynasty Dynasty in France started by the reign of King Henry IV, powerful and EXTREMELY wealthy, rulers of this Dynasty wanted hegemony (dominant power), wanted to see shift of balance of power
nobility of the sword the old fashioned nobility who gain their power by fighting for land. There was constant conflict between them and nobility of the robe. Louis XIV weakened the authority of it.
nobility of the robe New nobles who purchased their titles from monarchs and in turn became high officials in the government and remained loyal to the king
Duke of Sully chief minister to Henry IV. reforms enhanced power of monarchy. mercantilism. reduced royal debt. reformed tax system. oversaw improved transportation.
Louis XIII French king who succeeded Henry IV when he was nine years old; his reign was dominated by the influence by his mother and regent Marie de Medici, Cardinal Richelieu, and wealthy nobles.
Cardinal Richelieu Laid foundation for absolutism in France, weakened nobility, Peace of Alais, Intendant System. This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
politique Moderates of both religious faiths who held that only a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse.
Intendant system created, Cardinal Richelieu to weaken the nobility. replaced local officials with middle-class, minor noble civil servants. each of the country's 32 districts had an intendant responsible to maintain justice, police, finance. centralized French gvmt.
Louis XIV, "Sun King" king of France(major power) from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715). "I am the state"
"L' état, c'est moi" Quotation by Louis XIV meaning "I am the state". This basically means the king is the law.
Fronde 1648-53. Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIV. Caused political upheaval and economic devastation. (Cardinal Mazarin)
Cardinal Mazarin (1602-61), French statesman and cardinal, who controlled the French government during the minority of Louis XIV and helped make France the predominant power in Europe.
corvee Forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects
Versailles Palace - royal palace built during the reign of Louis XIV, most impressive palace in all of Europe. - - quintessential embodiment of baroque architecture - used by Louis XIV to control nobility
Edict of Fontainebleau revoked the Edict of Nantes, provided for the destruction of Huguenot churches and closing of Protestant schools, mass exodus of Huguenots weakened the French economy and strengthened its rivals - major mistake of Louis XIV
Jansenists Catholics who held some Calvinist ideas
mercantilism An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
bullionism nation's policy of accumulating as much precious metal(gold,silver) as possible while preventing its outward flow to other countries
Jean-Baptiste Colbert An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
balance of power Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
War of the League of Augsburg Louis XIV invaded the HRE, Spain, England, Sweden, and Dutch allied together and led to famine/depression for France 
War of Spanish Succession 1701 - 1713 Caused when Charles II of Spain leaves Spanish empire/crown to Philip of Anjou (Louis XIV of France's grandson)
Treaty of Utrecht 1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
Philip II (1527-1598) King of Spain from 1556 to 1598. Absolute monarch who helped lead the Counter Reformation by persecuting Protestants in his holdings. Also sent the Spanish Armada against England.
Escorial A Spanish monastery and palace built by Philip II.
"price revolution" increase in prices in 16th century-inflation-increased demand for goods-influx of gold and silver
Spanish Armada (1588) In this battle Philip II tried to attack England but his naval fleet was completely destroyed
Treaty of the Pyrenees, 1659 The treaty that ended fighting between France and Spain that continued after the Thirty Years' War; the treaty marked the end of Spain's status as a major European power.
Baroque 1600s to early 1700s, a grand, ornate style that characterized European painting and architecture, very emotional and expressive, overwhelmed viewer
Bernini (1598-1680) The papacy's official baroque artist. Sculpted Ecstasy of St. Teresa of Avila, tombs for the popes, and a large statue of Constantine. Famous for square facing St. Peters Basilica and its freestanding Colonnades.
Schönbrunn Habsburg emperor Leopold I built this in Austria in response to Versailles palace
Winter Palace Peter the Great in Russia built in St. Petersburg largely on influence of Versailles
Caravaggio, tenebrism Italian painter, 1st painter in Barque era, (dark-manner) extreme contrast between light and dark
Peter Paul Rubens is the most famous Baroque artist who studied Michelangelo in Italy and took that Renaissance style to the next level of drama, motion, color, religion and animation, which is portrayed in his paintings
Diego Velázquez Developed a very realistic style of portraying subjects (non-idealized). Popularized and brought dignity to bodegones (genre subjects). Greatest court painter. (Spanish courts)
Artemisia Gentileschi Vivid depictions of dramatic scenes; Judith paintings
Dutch Style Reflected wealth and religious toleration of religious subjects. Reflected urban and rural settings of Dutch life during the Golden Age of the Netherlands.
Rembrandt Best baroque artist, does not fit into any category.
Jan Vermeer Painted ordinary people in simple scenes
French Classicism The style in seventeenth-century art and literature resembling the arts in the ancient world and in the Renaissance-e.g., the works of Poussin, Moliere, and Racine.
Nicolas Poussin French painter. Founder and greatest practitioner of 17th century French classicism. Poussin's work embodies the virtues of clarity, logic, and order. 1594- 1665.
Jean Baptiste Racine A French dramatist, one of the "Big Three" of 17th-century France and one of the most important literary figures in the Western tradition
Moliere French classicist playwright who produced popular comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society.
J.S. Bach Greatest of Baroque composers. Wrote in variety of genres. Extremely prolific.
Created by: jayzsmyagent