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Chapter 5 Lipids, Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Cholesterol

Lipids Chemical term for fat. Contribute texture, flavor, and aroma to foods.
Lipids in Kcals 9 Kcals per gram
Energy from fat 34%
Triglycerides Major form of lipid in food and body. 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol.
Diglyceride 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol.
Monoglyceride 1 fatty acid attached to a glycerol.
Short chains 4-7 carbons and liquid at cold temp example - milk
medium chains 8-12 carbons and solid when chilled but liquid at room temp example coconut oil
long chains greater than 12 carbons and usually solid at room temp larger chains less fluid example - beef fat
Saturated fatty acids carbon chains and bound by 2 hydrogens Animal fats and tropical oils.
Cis Fatty acids double bonds are more fluid like and act as a repellant
Unsaturated Fatty acids carbons not saturated with hydrogen. Omega-6 & omega-3. Monosaturated and Polysaturated Essential to body
Trans fatty acids Raise blood cholesterol levels and increase heart disease.
Hydrogenation Causes some double bonds to become saturated.
Phospholipids Lipids attached to a phosphate group
Phosphoglycerides can act as emulsifiers Example: lecithin
Sterols Lipids found in plants and animals. Do not dissolve in water. Animal sterols can increase heart disease and plants reduce cholesterol in body.
Lipoprotein Transport particles for water-insoluble lipids. Created by combining water-insoluble lipids, phospholipids, and proteins. Transports triglycerides, cholesterol, and fat-soluble vitamins from small intestine and stored lipids from the liver.
Chylomicrons diet derived triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and small amounts of protein. Deliver triglycerides straight to cells into the blood and lymph bypassing the liver.
LDL Binds to receptors in membrane and deliver to body cells and deposits. (BAD) Dense in Cholesterol. Increase risk for heart disease.
HDL Collects and carries cholesterol back to the liver to be eliminated by the body. H=Healthy! Dense in lipoprotein. Reduce Heart Disease Risk.
VLDL Triglycerides produced in the Liver. Enzyme Lipoprotein Lipase removes triglycerides from VLDL's creating (IDL) Intermediate Density Lipoproteins
IDL 2/3 return to liver and the other 1/3 are transformed to LDL's
Function of Lipids Lubrication of body surfaces such as mucous membranes of eyes, makes hormones such as sex hormones and cortisol, Polyunsaturated fats help regulate BP and blood clotting.
Essential Fatty acids Important for growth, skin integrity, fertility, and structure and function of membranes. EICOSANOIDS- omega-3 & 6 help regulate blood clotting, BP, and immunity. Omega 3 has anti-inflammatory properties-decrease heart disease.
Deficiency in Essential Fatty Acids dry and scaly skin, liver abnormalties, poor wound healing, growth failure in infants, impaired hearing and vision.
Omega 3 Flax seed, walnuts, Soy. Decrease: Inflammation, BP, and blood clotting.
Omega 6 Vegetable Oil and Meat. Increase Inflammation, BP, and blood clotting.
Energy from Triglycerides Fatty acids and glycerol can be used to produce ATP. Beta Oxidation of fatty acids beings metabolic pathways to produce ATP.
Atherosclerosis Disease where lipids and fibrous material are deposited in artery walls. (clogged artery/blockage)
Risk Factors for heart disease high blood pressure, blood lipid levels, activity, genetic background, overweight and obesity, smoking, diet
# for total cholesterol less than 200
# for total LDL in healthy less than 100
# for total LDL high risk less than 70
# for total HDL cholesterol 60 or more
# for total triglycerides less than 150
Factors that reduce lipids polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, plant food, B vitamins, antioxidants, moderate alcohol consumption, fiber
Increase lipids cholesterol, saturated fats, trans fats, sodium, excess sugar, excess energy
Percent of lipids in diet 10-35%
Lipid Recommendation to reduce risk of Heart Disease Sat Fat- less than 7% of cals polyunsat fats- up to 10% of cals monounsat- up to 20% of cals chole- less than 200mg/day total fat- 10-35% of cal protein- approx 13% of cal carbs- 50-60% of cals soluble fiber- 10-25g/day total cals- balance weight
Created by: sthomp17