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Unit 2 Exam

QuestionAnswer
Albrecht and Leo X heads of the indulgence problem; half of the prophets went to each
Charles V HRE and head of Diet of Worms
Diet of Worms Charles V told Luther to recant or else; he didn’t
Diet of Speyer said the German princes could ignore/enforce the Diet of Worms as they pleased, giving German princes control over their religion
elector of Saxony and prince of Hesse 2 most powerful German Protestant leaders
cantons states in Switzerland (there are 13)
Zwingli Zurich; liked Erasmus; critic of mercenary service; had affair but was elected as people’s priest; wanted end to clerical celibacy; whatever wasn’t in the Bible wasn’t necessary
Marburg Colloquy Philip of Hesse tried to bring Zwingli and Luther together to resolve their differences, but it failed
Philip of Hesse tried to unite Swiss and German Protestants
Kappel 2 major battles occurred here; where Zwingli was executed
Anabaptists Protestants who wanted adult Baptism only; drew support from all social classes; many were executed; took over Münster
Conrad Grebel originator of Anabaptism
Schleitheim Confession of 1527 autonomized Anabaptists and laid down their beliefs (pacifism, don’t swear oaths, literal separation)
Menno Simons founder of Mennonites
Spiritualists isolated; disdain for external religion; the Spirit of God in all of us is our religion
Antitrinitarians common sense, rational, religion; didn’t believe in Trinity; Calvinists
predestination God foreordained all souls to salvation or damnation; Calvinism
Calvinism divine predestination and an individual’s responsibility to reorder society according to God’s plan
Calvin “long stubborn heart” was “made teachable” by God; Geneva
William Farel leader of Calvinist revolution in Geneva; convinced Calvin to stay
Bern Geneva’s Protestant ally
Institutes of the Christian Religion definitive theological statement for the Protestants; only for “mature Christians”
Strasbourg Model adopted by Genevan Church; established 4 offices: (1) pastors, (2) teachers, (3) elders, (4) deacons
Diet of Augsburg called by Charles V; assembly of Catholics and Protestants to try and solve differences; ended with a blunt order for the Lutherans to convert back to Catholicism
Schmalkaldic League league formed by German Protestant lands against Catholics under the leadership of Philip of Hesse and Frederick of Saxony
Augsburg Confession definitive statement of Lutheran belief made in 1530
Schmalkaldic Articles more strongly worded set of Lutheran principles
King Christian II Denmarkian who introduced Protestantism to the land
Frederick I Denmarkian under whom Lutheranism thrived; joined the Schmalkaldic League
Christian III Denmarkian who made Lutheranism the official religion
King Gustavus Vasa Swedish; wanted more land, so he embraced Lutheranism
Diet of Vesteras issued by Gustavus Vasa, it confiscated church lands in Sweden and subjected the clergy to royal authority
Magdeburg became a refuge for Protestants after Charles V tried to reconvert them all
Maurice of Saxony chosen by Charles V, he realized everything would eventually switch to Lutheranism and switched sides himself
Peace of Passau Charles reinstated Protestant leaders and guaranteed Lutherans religious freedom
Peace of Augsburg made the divisions permanent; the ruler of the land would decide what religion to follow; did not extend freedom to Calvinists or Anabaptists
William Tyndale translated Bible to English; he was a reformer
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey Henry VIII’s advisor, he tried to get him an annulment but didn’t (Sir Thomas Moore
Cromwell (and Cranmer) Henry VIII’s advisors with Lutheran sympathies
“Reformation Parliament” placed royal reigns on the clergy and monarchs must consult the Parliament when making changes in religion
Convocation legislative assembly representing the English clergy; recognized Henry as head of Church in England
Submission of the Clergy placed canon law under royal discretion, meaning the clergy were under royal authority
Cranmer became Archbishop of Canterbury and led the Convocation into invalidating Henry’s marriage
Act of Succession Anne Boleyn’s children declared legitimate heirs to the throne
Act of Supremacy (#1) Henry VIII declared head of the Church of England
Ten Articles of 1536 made some concessions to Protestants, but maintained all Catholic doctrine (except divorce); Henry forbid the English clergy from marrying
Six Articles of 1539 reaffirmed transubstantiation and denied the Eucharistic cup to the laity and provided for private masses
Edward VI strong supporter of Protestantism; Henry’s Articles repealed
Edward Seymour and Earl of Warwick Edward VI’s regents (He was too young to rule)
Act of Uniformity imposed Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer
Second Act of Uniformity revised Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer and 42 article confession of faith (sola fide, denied transubstantiation)
Mary I restored Catholic doctrine and practices; married to Philip II; cost England Calais
Jesuits new religious order that stressed religious and moral self-sacrifice and discipline
Lady Jane Grey supposed to take the throne after Edward VI, but the English saw Mary as next in line
Elizabeth I successor to Mary, she was a Protestant and liked the “middle way” of Anglicanism; didn’t want any religious extremes
Sir William Cecil Elizabeth I’s advisor
Act of Supremacy (#2) repealed anti-protestant legislation and declared Elizabeth head of spiritual and temporal matters
Act of Uniformity (#2) revised the Second Book of Common Prayer
Puritans Protestants working in the church to get rid of Catholic things; had 2 grievances: (1) get rid of Catholic vestments and ceremony in the Church and (2) wanted the episcopal system
Philip II tried to avoid confrontation with Elizabeth
Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth for heresy
Treaty of Nonsuch provided troops and cavalry to the Netherlands
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots French and Catholic; people wanted her on the throne; executed by Elizabeth
John Knox Scottish reformer and founder of Presbyterianism
Lord Darnley Mary’s husband
Babington Plot plot against Elizabeth where Mary was clearly involved; led to her execution
Sir Francis Drake head of the English forces against the Spanish in the Spanish Armada
James I strong supporter of the divine right of kings, he wasn’t nearly as diplomatic as Elizabeth was
impositions new source of income imposed by James I
Millenary petition James’ response to the Puritan grievances saying Anglicanism was the religion
Council of Trent council called by Emperor Charles V and Pope Paul III to try and curb the selling of church offices and other religious goods; required priests to be educated and celibate; reaffirmed all of the Catholic positions during the Reformation
Wet nursing where a rich mother hires a nurse to suckle her infant
Miguel de Cervantes wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha, a Spanish book satirizing the chivalric romances of Spain
Shakespeare great playwright of England
presbyter “elder”; people who directed the affairs of early Christian congregations
Counter Reformation
baroque art form that had dramatic orientation characterized by curved lines and a three dimensional display of energy; Catholic art form to show the grandiose Church
politiques rulers or people in positions of power who put the success and well being of their empire first
Huguenots French Protestants; mostly aristocrats
Edict of Fontainebleau subjected the Huguenots to the Inquisition
Edict of Chateaubriant Henry II subjected new measures against the Protestants (it wasn’t until Henry IV, Henry of Navarre, that the crown became friendly to Protestants)
Treaty of Cateau- Cambrésis ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars in 1559; Europe actually had a moment of peace after this
Henry II French king who was mortally wounded, shifting the power to Spain
Francis II sickly boy who took over after Henry II
Bourbons power was in South and West; Huguenot sympathies
Montmorency Chatillons
Guises power in the East; established power over Francis II and the most powerful family
Theodore Beza converted the mother of the future King Henry IV; also pals with Calvin
Condé prince of Condé converted to Protestantism and along with the prince of Coligny merged with the French Huguenots
Catherine de Medicis regent for her son Charles IX; tried to reconcile the Protestants and Catholics; first concern was to protect the monarchy; wanted Catholic France but feared Guise control
Charles IX king after the sickly Francis II
January Edict allowed Protestants to worship publicly outside of towns
Vassy massacre here at a congregation by the duke of Guise marks the beginning of the French wars of religion
First French war duke of Guise was assassinated (April 1562
Second French war bloodiest of all the conflicts, Condé was killed and Huguenot leadership passed to Coligny; this ended up being good because Coligny was much better militarily (1567
Peace of Saint Germain
Coligny Became Charles IX’s most trusted advisor
Louis of Nassau leader of Protestant forces in the Netherlands; gained an ear into Coligny, thus the king
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre killing of thousands of French Huguenots; Catherine convinced Charles that the Huguenots were planning a coup and execution was necessary; it made the war no longer just between the Bourbons and the Guises
Pope Gregory XIII along with Philip II, they celebrated the Massacre
John Knox laid the groundwork for the Calvinist resistance
Henry III last of Henry II’s sons, he found the country wedged between the Catholic league and Huguenots
Catholic League alliance with Spain, France
Peace of Beaulieu granted the Huguenots almost complete religious and civil freedom
Henry of Navarre Henry IV, he led the Protestants; eventually forced to ally with Henry III; politique; “Paris is worth a mass”
Day of Barricades Henry III attempted to route the Catholic League and failed
Edict of Nantes proclaimed a formal religious settlement; recognized some religious rights of Huguenots; freedom of public worship, right of assembly, admission to public offices, and permission to maintain fortified towns
Treaty of Vervins ended hostilities between France and Spain
Philip II Spanish king; controlled the Habsburg lands; Castile gave him a strong home base; got money from the silver mines
Inflation loss of the value of money
Don Carlos son of Philip II, he died under suspicious circumstances
Don John of Austria fought and beat the Moors in Granada
Holy League Spain, Venice, Genoa, and the pope banded together against the Turks in the Mediterranean
Battle of Lepanto Don John vs. Ali Pasha (Ottoman); the Mediterranean now belonged to Spain and it pushed back the Muslim advance
Cardinal Granvelle hoped to check Protestant advances by reforming the Church; headed the council after Philip died; sought ecclesiastical reorganization until he was thrown out
Count of Egmont (and William of Orange) led resistance against Spain and attempted to reimpose their traditional rule
William of Nassau William of Orange, he sought the autonomy of the Netherlands over religious unity; he was very much a politique
Compromise pledge drawn up saying they would resist the tenants of Trent and the Inquisition
Duke of Alba dispatched to the Netherlands by Spanish; ended up executing tons of people
“tenth penny” 10% tax used to pay for the suppression of the Netherlands’ own revolt
Sea Beggars an international group of anti
Spanish Fury Spanish came into the streets of Antwerp and murdered thousands
Pacification of Ghent union of 10 Catholic provinces with 7 Protestant ones; declared regional sovereignty in matters of religion
Union of Brussels final peace that included 4 provinces that were holding out in the Pacification of Ghent
Perpetual Edict Signed by Don Juan, it signaled the departure of all Spanish forces in the Netherlands within 20 days
Union of Arras union of the southern (Catholic) provinces of the Netherlands with Spain
Union of Utrecht union of the northern (Protestant) provinces of the Netherlands
Alençon Netherlands declared him their titular leader, not Philip II anymore; when he actually tried to take control, he was deposed of
Maurice son of William of Orange; continued the fight of the Dutch
Peace of Westphalia full recognition of the independence of the northern provinces of the Netherlands
Thirty- Nine Articles made Protestantism the official religion in England
Presbyterians Scottish Calvinists and English Protestants who advocated a church with a semiautonomous congregation governed by “presbyteries”
Congregationalists put a group or assembly above any individual and prefer an ecclesiastical policy that allows each congregation to be self
30 Years’ War last and most destructive of the wars of religion
Bavaria strongly Catholic area in which the Counter
Maximilian I Bavarian who organized a Catholic league
Ferdinand Habsburg, his ascent to the throne in Bohemia caused the first outbreak of war; Catholic and Jesuit
Letter of Majesty broadened the rights of Bohemian Protestants by Rudolf II; revoked by Ferdinand
Defenestration of Prague throwing of Ferdinand’s regents out the window
Frederick V declared king by the other Bohemians as opposed to Ferdinand II
Maximilian of Bavaria and John George I of Saxony allied with Ferdinand II but had other motives
Battle of White Mountain Ferdinand II’s troops under Tilly routed Ferdinand V; quickly re
Christian IV Denmark king who wanted to extend Danish influence over towns around the North Sea
Wallenstein allied with Ferdinand II; brutal and good military strategist
Edict of Restitution re asserted Catholic safeguards in the Peace of Augsburg; reaffirmed illegality of Calvinism; it happened because Wallenstein was defeating everyone so badly
Gustavus Adolphus I of Sweden became the leader of Protestant forces and opened the new period of war; controlled by 2 groups: (1) Cardinal Richelieu and (2) the Dutch
Breitenfeld victory by the Swedish that completely switched the course of the way that it is regarded as the most decisive engagement of the 30 Years War
Battle of Lützen created a brief standstill; Gustavus Adolphus was killed
Peace of Prague the German Protestant states reached a compromise with Ferdinand II; France and the Netherlands did not reach a compromise
Treaty of Westphalia ended hostilities in HRE; written in French; rescinded the Edict of Restitution and reasserted the Peace of Augsburg (ruler of land determines religion); proclaimed independence of the Swiss Confederacy and the United Provinces of the Netherlands
Treaty of Pyrenees French and Spanish treaty that humiliated the Spanish and asserted France’s power and Spain’s demise
Created by: swimmingninja42