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History, Theory

City Beautiful Daniel Burnham, White City, Chicago World's Fair 1893
Ebenezer Howard 1898 A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. Lecthworth England, 1903. Sunnyside Gardens NY 1924. Radburn NJ 1928
Mariemont, Ohio Principles of New Urbanism. Mary Muhlenberg Emery, John Nolen
New Towns Movement Reston, Virginia 1962, Robert Simon. Columbia, MD 1963, James Rouse.
Radburn 1928. Only 1 block built. 7673 familes (2,800 residents). 23 acre central green remains. Low housing turnover, high property values.
New Urbanism today Duany, Calthorpe, Plater-Zyberg. Seaside, FL 1984. Kentlands, MD 1988. Celebration, FL 1996, Mississippi Coast, 2005.
Multi Nuclei Theory Harris and Ullman 1945
Concentric Circle Theory Burgess 1923
Sector Theory Homer Hoyt 1939. theory urban areas develop in sectors along communication and transportation routes
Synoptic Rationality Goal Setting. Identification of policy alternatives. Evaluation of means against ends. Implementation of the preferred alternative.
Incremental Planning Charles Linblohm - "The Science of Muddling Through". Decision makers are under limits of time, money and expertise. In reality, decision makers use a mixture of intuition, experience and consultation to make a decision.
Transactive Planning Relies on face to face contact with people that will be affected by decisions. Interpersonal dialogue allows for a process of mutual learning. Supports decentralized planning.
Advocacy Planning Paul Davidoff. Saul Alinsky. The planner's role is to advocate for the underrepresented groups. Brought backroom negotiations out into the open. Redefined "public interest".
Radical Planning Gives planning to the people. Allows neighborhoods to be responsible for planning in their own communities.
Communicative Planning Consensus building. Focuses on identifying stakeholders and building a consensus on how to solve a problem.
Should Trees Have Standing 1972 Christopher Stone. Discussed the issue of the authority to file suit. Discuss the Sierra Club v. Morton, Secretary of the Interior case where the SC attempted to block development of a ski resort in Mineral King Valley.
first national planning conference In 1909 at the National Conference on City Planning and Congestion Relief in Washington, D.C.
Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago 1912, Walter Moody adopted as an eighth-grade textbook by the Chicago Board of Education. This is the first known formal instruction in city planning below the college level.
Carrying Out the City Plan 1914, Flavel Shurtleff the first major textbook on city planning.
American City Planning Institute of Planners (ACIP) 1917 Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., was ACIP's first president. The organization was renamed to American Institute of Planners (AIP) in 1939. The AIP was the forerunner of the American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP)
City Planning, the predecessor to the current Journal of the American Planning Association. In 1925, the American City Planning Institute and the National Conference on City Planning published
American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO) founded in 1934
AIP adopted a Code of Ethics 1971
the first exam for AIP membership was administered. 1977
American Planning Association 1978 created through a merger of AIP and ASPO.
The Journal of Planning Education and Research In 1981, the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning published
passed the first land use zoning restrictions on the location of obnoxious uses In 1867, San Francisco
created the first local civic center plan in the U.S. In 1903, Cleveland. Daniel Burnham, John Carrere, and Arnold Brunner were responsible for the plan's development.
first major American city to apply the City Beautiful principles 1906 San Francisco. using a plan developed by Daniel Burnham.
the first town planning board was created In 1907 in Hartford, Connecticut.
first metropolitan regional plan for Chicago 1909 Daniel Burnham
first state to pass enabling legislation 1909 Wisconsin
first city to use land use zoning to guide development 1909 Los Angeles
Harland Bartholomew In 1914, Newark, New Jersey hired the first full-time employee for a city planning commission, Harland Bartholomew. Bartholomew went on to become one of the most famous planning consultants.
first comprehensive zoning code In 1916, New York City adopted the first comprehensive zoning code, written by Edward Bassett.
formed the first regional planning commission In 1922, Los Angeles County formed the first regional planning commission.
Standard State Zoning Enabling Act In 1924, Secretary Herbert Hoover of the U.S. Department of Commerce issued the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act.
first major U.S. city to adopt a comprehensive plan In 1925, The City of Cincinnati was the first major U.S. city to adopt a comprehensive plan, produced by Alfred Bettman and Ladislas Segoe.
Standard City Planning Enabling Act In 1928, the U.S. Department of Commerce, under Secretary Herbert Hoover, released the Standard City Planning Enabling Act.
first U.S. National Planning Board In 1933, the first U.S. National Planning Board was created. It was later renamed the National Resources Planning Board and then abolished in 1943.
first federally supported public housing In 1934, the first federally supported public housing was constructed in Cleveland, although the first to be occupied was located in Atlanta.
first state to introduce statewide zoning In 1961, Hawaii was the first state to introduce statewide zoning, which was later amended in 1978.
How the Other Half Lives Jacob Riis, published in 1890. This book resulted in housing reform in New York City.
Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform Ebenezer Howard, published in 1898. This book initiated the Garden City movement.
Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago Walter Moody, published in 1912. This book was adopted as a textbook for eighth graders in Chicago.
Carrying Out the City Plan Flavel Shurtleff, published in 1914. This book was the first major textbook on city planning.
Cities in Evolution Patrick Geddess, published in 1915. This book centers on regional planning
Planning of the Modern City Nelson Lewis, published in 1916.
Local Planning Administration Ladislas Segoe, published in 1941. This book was the first in the Green Book Series produced by the International City/County Management Association.
Urban Land Use Planning F. Stuart Chapin, published in 1957. This book became a common textbook on land use planning.
Image of the City Kevin Lynch, published in 1960. This book defines basic concepts within the city, such as edges and nodes.
The Death and Life of Great American Cities Jane Jacobs, published in 1961. Jacobs provided a critical look at planners and planning, with a special focus on the mistakes of urban renewal.
Silent Spring Rachel Carson, published in 1962. This book focuses on the negative effects of pesticides on the environment.
The Urban General Plan TJ Kent, published in 1964.
With Heritage So Rich edited by Alfred Reins, published in 1966. This is a seminal book in historic preservation.
Design with Nature Ian McHarg, published in 1969. This book focuses on conservation design.
The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces William Whyte, published in 1980. This book promotes the use of environmental psychology and sociology in urban design.
Charles Abrams created the New York Housing Authority. In 1965 he published The City is the Frontier, a book that provided harsh criticism to the U.S. federal policies surrounding slum clearance, urban renewal, and public housing.
Thomas Adams was an important planner during the Garden City movement. He was the secretary of the Garden City Association and became the first manager of Letchworth. He developed a number of garden suburbs in England and later went on to teach planning at MIT and Harvard.
Saul Alinsky was an advocate of community organizing. Alinsky organized Chicago’s poor in the late 1930s and 1940s. In 1946, he published Reveille for Radicals, which encouraged those who were poor to become involved in American democracy. Later he published Rules for Radicals, which provided 13 rules for community organizing.
Sherry Arnstein 1969, wrote A Ladder of Citizen Participation for the Journal of the American Planning Association. This article describes the levels of involvement by citizens depending on the form of participation utilized.
Robert Moses transformed New York City’s public works from the 1930s through the 1950s. He expanded the state’s park system and built numerous parkways. He also built parks, playgrounds, highways, bridges, tunnels, and public housing
Rexford Tugwell served as the head of the Resettlement Administration. He worked on the greenbelt cities program, which sought construction of new, self-sufficient cities. Tugwell was closely involved in the development of Arthurdale, West Virginia, a Resettlement Administration community. He later served on the New York City Planning Commission and served as governor of Puerto Rico.
Sir Raymond Unwin was an English town planner and designer of Letchworth. He later lectured at the University of Birmingham in England and Columbia University.
Catherine Bauer Wurster was a founder of American housing policy. She worked to reform policy that was related to housing and city planning. She served as executive secretary of the Regional Planning Association of America. She wrote Modern Housing and was influential in the passage of the Housing Act of 1937.
City Beautiful Movement During the late 1800s and early 1900s, U.S. cities were becoming places that had severe poverty, crime, and blight. At the time, there was a movement to address these issues through the expression of moral and civic virtues. Daniel Burnham was a leader in promoting this movement. City Beautiful leaders believed that creating a beautiful city would inspire residents to lead virtuous lives.
Garden City Movement 1898, Ebenezer Howard wrote To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. This book was later reissued in 1902 as Garden Cities of To-morrow. It explained the principles behind the Garden City. After publishing the book he formed the Garden-City Association in England in 1899.
Garden City self-contained, with a population of 32,000 and a land area of 6,000 acres. A Garden City would house 30,000 people on 1,000 acres, with remaining land and population in farming areas. The Garden City was intended to bring about economic and social reform. Land ownership would be held by a corporation.
New Towns program During the Depression, President Roosevelt established the Resettlement Administration in 1935. This agency was responsible for the New Towns program. The New Towns program developed three cities based on Howard's ideas: Greendale, Wisconsin; Greenhills, Ohio; and Greenbelt, Maryland. Additionally, 99 other new towns were planned.
Homestead Act In 1862, Congress passed the Homestead Act, which provided 160 acres of land to settlers for a fee of $18 and a guarantee of five years of residence. The result was the settlement of 270 million acres, or 10% of the land area of the United States. In the same year, Congress passed the Morrill Act, which allowed new western states to establish colleges.
General Land Law Revision Act In 1891, the General Land Law Revision Act was passed by Congress. This Act provided the President of the United States with the power to create forest preserves by proclamation.
Forest Management Act In 1897, Congress passed the Forest Management Act, which allowed the Secretary of the Interior to manage forest preserves.
Public Lands Commission In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed a Public Lands Commission to propose rules for land development and management.
U.S. Reclamation Act In 1902, the U.S. Reclamation Act was passed. It allowed the funds raised from the sale of public land in arid states to be used to construct water storage and irrigation systems.
Antiquities Act In 1906, the Antiquities Act was the first law to provide federal protection for archaeological sites. The Act allowed for the designation of National Monuments.
Resettlement Administration In 1935, the Resettlement Administration was formed to carry out experiments in population resettlement and land reform. The result was the development of Greenbelt towns.
Serviceman's Readjustment Act In 1944, the Serviceman's Readjustment Act, commonly known as the GI Bill, guaranteed home loans to veterans. The result was the rapid development of suburbs.
The Chicago Plan of 1909 developed by Daniel Burnham, was the first regional plan. It focused on incorporating ideas from the City Beautiful movement. It also focused on riverfront development and civic center spaces.
The McMillan Plan of 1901 incorporated many of the principles of the City Beautiful movement. The focus of the plan was on boulevards and civic center spaces.
Concentric Circle Theory Ernest Burgess in 1925. He believed that cities grow in a series of outward rings. Land use is based on the distance from the downtown. There were five rings to his theory.
Sector Theory developed by Homer Hoyt in 1939. Hoyt was in the real estate business in Chicago and was interested in high-end residential development. Hoyt disagreed with Burgess' conception of city growth. He argued that land uses vary based on transportation routes. The city, as a result, was a series of sectors radiating out from the center of the city.
Multiple Nuclei Theory developed by Harris and Ullman in 1945. They argued that cities develop a series of specific land use nuclei. A land use nucleus is formed because of accessibility to natural resources, clustering of similar uses, land prices, and the repelling power of land uses.
Central Place Theory developed by Walter Christaller in 1933. This theory explains the size and spacing of cities. The theory states that there is a minimum market threshold to bring a firm to a city and there is a maximum range of people who are willing to travel to receive goods and services.
Incremental Planning In 1959, Charles Lindblom published the article "The Science of Muddling Through", which first introduces the concept of incrementalism. Lindblom argues that people make their plans and decisions in an incremental manner. He argues that people accomplish goals through a series of successive, limited comparisons.
Rational Planning Pure rationality assumes that a planner has perfect knowledge of all of the factors in a given situation. However, no planner can use pure rationality because we can never have complete information. Instead, we "satisfice." Herbert Simon
Mixed Scanning Amitai Etzioni introduced the concept of mixed scanning as a compromise between the rational and incremental planning theories. Mixed scanning views planning decisions at two levels: the big picture and the small picture.
Advocacy Planning developed in the 1960s by Paul Davidoff as a way to represent the interests of groups within a community
Transactive Planning 1973, John Friedmann published a book titled Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning. While Advocacy Planning focused on working with specific groups in a community, the planner still serves as the technical expert that determines the alternatives. Transactive planning theory was developed in the 1970s as a way to get the public involved in the planning process.
Radical Planning In 1987, John Friedmann published a book titled Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action. In it he discusses the concept of radical planning. Radical planning takes the power away from the government and gives it to the people. In this process, citizens get together and develop their own plans.
Communicative Planning Communicative planning is currently the theory of choice among planning practitioners. Planners around the nation have moved towards more open planning that includes a much more intensive citizen participation process.The communicative planner's primary function is to listen to people's stories and assist in forging a consensus among different viewpoints.
Lawrence Veiller Father of the modern housing code
Peter Calthorpe founded Congress for New Urbanism
City as Growth Machine Theory Logan and Molotch
Children of the Poor Jacob Riis 1892
LeCorbusier modernism dream city called “Radiant City” comprised primarily of high density skyscrapers surrounded by open park spaces and bisected by high-speed vehicular routes in a large superblock arrangement.
Ernest Burgess 1925 Concentric Zone Theory
1929, Radburn, New Jersey Clarence Stein and Henry Wright based on Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City concepts, and featured alleys behind houses, cul-de-sacs, communal gardens and a separation of vehicular and pedestrian access
Clarence Perry 1929 “Neighborhood Unit” concept
The Disappearing City 1932 Frank Lloyd Wright. Automobile oriented suburban development, Broadacre City.
Walter Christaller 1933 Central Place theory
“Sector Theory” Homer Hoyt. 1939. modification of the concentric zone model that allows for an outward progression of growth, but did not make allowances for private cars enabling commuting from cheaper land outside city boundaries.
Section 701 of the Housing Act in 1954 subsidized thousands of general plans and special projects for cities, counties, regional councils of government, and states until 1981.
Multiple Nuclei Model Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman in the 1945 article "The Nature of Cities"
Patrick Geddes Cities in Evolution: An Introduction to the Town Planning Movement and to the Study of Civics in 1915. considered the Father of Regional Planning
Neighborhood Unit: A Scheme of Arrangement for the Family-Life Community Clarence Perry 1929. as a monograph in Regional Survey of New York and Its Environs, volume 7 of the New York Regional Plan
Catherine Bauer 1934 book Modern Housing described many of the problems associated with housing and was a political demand for the housing movement to support low rent housing. The book, and her opinions, had a strong influence on the housing legislation of the New Deal.
Jane Jacob The Death and Life of Great American Cities;
Ian McHarg Design with Nature
Kevin Lynch 1960 The Image of the City helped planners visual their surroundings using five elements: the “paths” people travel; the “edges” of buildings and natural features, the characteristics “districts” within a city; its “nodes” or intersections, and its identifiable “landmarks”.
Lewis Mumford The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects in 1961
The Urban General Plan T.J. Kent, Jr., in 1964, and provides a history of the use, characteristics, and purpose of the urban general (or comprehensive) plan, and how it was being applied in the 1960’s.
William H. Whyte study of human interactions in New York City’s parks and plazas, The Social Life of Small Urban Places
Joel Garreau Edge City: Life on the New Frontier. characterized by: 1. More Jobs than Bedrooms 2. 5 Million sf or more of office space 3. 600,000 sf of retail 4. A single place of jobs, shopping & entertainment 5. Did not exist 30 years earlier
Rural by Design Randall Arendt 1994. addresses how small towns grow and maintain their small town character through sprawl avoidance, greenways, compatible design, density, cluster development, good site and open space planning, and farmland preservation
Richard Florida The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community And Everyday Life
Donald Shoup The High Price of Free Parking
Jean Gottman French geographer most widely known for his 1957 seminal study on the urban region of the northeast entitled “Megalopolis, or the urbanization of the Northeastern Seaboard”
NORMAN KRUMHOLTZ trail-blazing work in Cleveland (while City Planning Director) as an advocate and practitioner of urban “equity planning”, Advocacy Planning.
PETER CALTHORPE one of the founders of the Congress for New Urbanism (CNU) and the developer of the concept of Transit Oriented Development (TOD)
ANDRES DUANY New Urbanism’s leading advocate
1st City Subway Boston (1897)
1st U.S. Transcontinental Highway Lincoln Highway (dedicated 1913)
1st City Zoning Ordinance New York City (1916)
1st City Comprehensive Plan Cincinnati (1925)
1st Skyscraper Chicago (1884)
1st Planning Commission Hartford, Connecticut (1907)
1st Regional Planning Commission Los Angeles County (1922)
1st Historic Preservation Commission Vieux Carre, New Orleans (1921)
1st Historic Preservation Ordinance Charleston (1921)
1st National Conference City Planning 1909 Washington DC
APA 1978 merger of American City Planning Institute which was formed in 1917 and renamed the American Institute of Planners (AIP) in 1939; and the American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO), which was established in 1934.
Pierre L'Enfant Designed DC in 1791
Alfred Bettman Cincinnati Plan (1925). • Argued Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty (1925) • “Standard State Zoning Enabling Act” (1924) • “A Standard City Planning Enabling Act” (1928) • Drafted a bill passed in Ohio in 1915 enabling the creation of local planning commissions • First president of the American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO, 1934)
1st Council of Government Detroit, MI (1954)
1st Planning Commission Employee Harland Bartholomew (1915)
Father of Zoning Edward Bassett
Father of modern housing codes Lawrence Veiller
Clarence Arthur Perry The Neighborhood Unit Concept
Father of City Planning Harland Bartholomew or Daniel Burnham
Father of The Environmental Movement Ian McHarg
Edgeless City 2002 Robert Lang. dominant urban form having large, isolated, suburban office complexes that are inaccessible by pedestrians and transit
Indian Reorganization Act 1934 allowed Native Americans to adopt a constitution and organize for their common welfare.
Satisficing Herbert Simon
Telecommunications Reform Act 1996. Local government cannot prohibit telecommunications services, but it has the right to ensure appropriate placement in the community.
Peter Calthorpe Founded the Congress for New Urbanism.
City Efficient Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. Began after City Beautiful around 1909.
James Howard Kunstler Geography of Nowhere (1993), which provides a history of suburbia and urban development; leading proponent of new urbanism; recently wrote The Long Emergency, dealing with declining oil production and the end of industrialized society
Harland Bartholomew first full-time municipally employed planner, St. Louis (1913); developed many early comprehensive plans.
F. Stuart Chapin wrote Urban Land Use Planning (1957), a common textbook on land use planning.
Paul Davidoff —father of advocacy planning; argued planners should not be value-neutral public servant, but should represent special interest groups.
Andres Duany advocate for new urbanism; designed Seaside, Florida (1982).
Joel Garreau wrote Edge City (1991); an ‘edge city’ is a distinct place that has at least 5 million square feet of office, 600,000 square feet of retail, and more jobs than bedrooms.
Patrick Geddess Father of regional planning. Cities in Evolution 1915.
Judith Innes consensus building and collaborative planning; author of JAPA article, “Planning Through Consensus Building: A new view of the comprehensive planning ideal” (Autumn 1996).
Le Corbusier radiant city (skyscrapers for high-density living and working, surrounded by commonly owned park space), superblocks, separated uses
Charles Lindblom “The Science of ‘Muddling Through’” (1959); incremental planning, which acknowledged that changes are made in increments
City as a Growth Machine Theory 1987. John Logan and Harvey Molotch
Kevin Lynch defined basic concepts within the City (paths, edges, nodes, districts); wrote the Image of the City (1960)
Ian McHarg conservation design, author of Design with Nature (1969); predecessor of the overlay of layers used in modern GIS
Robert Moses —influenced development of state parks and parkways in New York; helped establish the State Council of Parks in 1923; blamed for displacing people and neighborhoods with highway projects in Manhattan
Clarence Perry neighborhood unit concept, published concept in New York City and its Environs (1929)
Ladislas Segoe wrote Local Planning Administration (1941), first in the Greenbook series
Flavel Shurtleff wrote Carrying Out the City Plan (1914), first major planning textbook
Calvert Vaux designed NY’s Central Park with Frederick Law Olmstead, Sr. in 1851
William Whyte promoted use of environmental psychology and sociology in urban design; wrote Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (1980); coined the term “greenway” in his book the Last Landscape; pioneer on conservation easements
Henry Wright designed Radburn, NJ, a “town in which people could live peacefully with the automobile—or rather in spite of it”
Water Quality Act 1965. established the Water Pollution Control Administration within the Department of the Interior. This was the first time water quality was treated as an environmental concern rather than a public health concern.
The Clean Water Act of 1966 provided construction grants for wastewater treatment facilities.
The Water Pollutant Control Act of 1948 allowed the Surgeon General in cooperation with other governmental entities, to prepare a comprehensive program for eliminating or reducing the pollution of interstate waters and tributaries and improving the sanitary condition of surface and underground waters. The Act allowed the Federal Works Administrator to assist government agencies in constructing treatment plants that could help to prevent discharges of inadequately treated sewage and other wastes into interstate waters or tributaries.
The Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 prohibited the construction of any bridge, dam, dike, or causeway over any navigable waterway in the U.S. without Congressional approval. The Act also required Congressional approval for all wharfs, piers, or jetties, and the excavation or fill of navigable waters.
The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 later amended in 1990, focused efforts to reduce polluted runoff in 29 coastal states
The Federal Water Pollutant Control Act of 1972 amended the Water Pollutant Act of 1948. The amendments broadened the government’s authority over water pollution and restructured the authority for water pollution under the Environmental Protection Agency. The Act changed the enforcement from water quality standards to regulating the amount of pollutants being discharged from particular point sources.
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 provided protection of animal and plant species that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service designate as threatened or endangered. This act was later amended in 1988.
Clean Air Act 1970 The federal government sets ambient standards and the states must devise methods that enables these standards to be met.
The Clean Water Act passed in 1977, as an amendment to the Federal Water Pollutant Control Act of 1972. This Act requires anyone wanting to discharge pollutants into a body of water to obtain a permit to do so. It also regulates the amount of water that may be discharged and the types of pollutants that may be released.
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