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Herlihy 15

Blood

QuestionAnswer
BLOOD
3 Functions of blood 1.)transports substances around body; 2.) participates in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance; and body temp, and 3.) blood contains clotting factors that can stop blood loss
Parts of blood Plasma and blood cells
Serum Plasma without the clotting proteins
Erythrocytes red blood cells RBC - primarily involved with transporting oxygen to all body tissues
Leukocytes white blood cells WBC - protect body from infection
Thrombocytes platelets that protect from bleeding
Hematocrit separation of packed cell volume into plasma and blood cells. Normal is 45% cells and 55% plasma. Blood cells are mostly RBC; small layer in between is WBC and platelets called buffy coat
Htc - decrease in % can indicate... anemia - lower than normal RBCs. But the percentage can also change in dehydrated person where % of RBCs goes up relative to plasma-number of RBCs is not less, but blood volume is less so plasma is less
Hemopoiesis blood cell formation
2 types of hemopoietic tissue red bone morrow and lymphatic system
Myeloid hempoiesis blood formation in the red bone marrow; primarily in ends of long and flat irregular bones-femur, sternum, cranial vertebrae and pelvis
How does bone marrow produce 3 different types of blood cells? Stem cells in marrow differentiates into 3 different blood cells
Myelosuppression bone marrow produces inadequate number of blood cells leading to deficiencies in: RBC-aplastic anemia; platelets; or WBC Can be caused by cancer therapies
Aplastic anemia myelosuppression (bone marrow depression) leads to deficiency in RBCs
Leukopenia deficiency of WBCs (leukocytes) due to myelosuppression (bone marrow depression) leads to leukopenia - open to infection
Thrombocytopenia deficiency in thrombocytes (platelets) from bone marrow depression - risk of hemorrhage
Polycythemia vera over-activity and excess production of blood; increases viscosity of blood burdens heart
The patient with polycythemia vera is: red faced with elevated RBC count, elevated hematocrit and elevated hemoglobin
BLOOD CELLS
RED BLOOD CELLS
Erythrocytes RBCs most numerous, red bone marrow produces several million per second; primarily concerned with transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Erythropoiesis production of RBC's (erythrocytes)
Reticulocyte also retics; immature RBCs in blood usually very small. increase could indicate bleeding and bone is being signaled to produce more; decrease could indicate patient unable to produce RBC as in myelosuppression or severe iron deficiency
RBC shape and content large, disk, flexible; no mitochondria, produces ATP anaerobically-without using the oxygen it is carrying; lacks nucleus and DNA-cannot reproduce; old RBCs are removed and replaced
Hemoglobin large protein molecule in RBCs; 2 parts: globin-protein and heme-iron. Oxygen attaches to the iron atom in the heme. Globin transports CO2.
Hypoxemia deficiency of oxygen in blood; cyanosis
Necessary for hemoglobin... iron, B12, folic acid, protein
Intrinsic factor secreted by stomach and necessary for absorption of B12 -
Pernicious Anemia lack of intrinsic factors lead to B12 deficiency - used to be "violent death" now easily treated with B12
Erythropoietin hormone secreted by kidneys to signal bone marrow to produce more RBCs increases oxygen in tissue
Polycythemia too many RBC's - kidneys detect lack of oxygen (lung disease or high altitude are secondary polycythemias)
Athletes, bone-marrow depressed patients, and patients with renal failure increase RBCs with... EPO erythropoietin
Life span of RBC about 120 days
When RBC gets worn and ragged the macrophages in spleen and liver remove them and... phagocytose them.
Hemolytic anemia hemolysis - RBCs are removed faster than produced; and jaundice from bile that is in excess due to rapid destruction of RBCs
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
Production of WBCs is Leukopoiesis
Granulocytes WBCs with granules. produced in red bone marrow 3 types of granulocytes: neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils
Neutrophil most common granulocyte; most important role is phagocytosis. go to infection to phagocytose pathogens. only last 10-12 hours
Neutropenia deficiency of neutrophils
Shift to the left production so rapid in response to pathogen than neutrophils are immature.
Differential white blood count test to look are %s of different types of white blood cells which helps identify pathogen
Basophils granulocyte that release histamine and anti clot
Eosinophils involved in inflammatory response; destroy certain parasites; elevated in persons with allergies
Agranulocytes WBCs without granules
2 types of agranulocytes lymphocytes-reproduce in red bone marrow and lymphoid tissue; and monocytes-is phagocytotic-differentiating into fixed and wandering macrophages
Names and Classifications of WBCs Naughty-Neutrophils Little-Lymphocytes Monkeys-Monocytes Eat=Eosinophils Bananas-Basophils says Grandpa - Granulocytes BEN Basophils, Eosinphils, Neutrophils
Hemostasis Stop bleeding
3 events to stop bleeding Vascular spasm- decreases vessel and therefore blood When torn vessel activates platelets which are sticky and form platelet plug Clotting factors form clot (exercise decreases platelet stickiness and stress increases it)
Stages in Clotting 1. Prothrombin activator PTA activates clotting factors in blood from their inactive form 2. In presence of calcium PTA activates thrombin 3. Thrombin activates fibrinogen fibers which forms a net
Created by: catchris