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Herlihy 2

Basic Chemistry

Matter Chemistry is the study of matter which is anything that occupies space and has weight
Element Is matter that is composed of atoms that have the same number of positive charges in their nuclei.
4 elements that make up 96% of the human body Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N)
Subatomic particles in the nucleus of the atom protons and neutrons
Subatomic particles that orbit the atom's nucleus Electrons
Each atom is neutrally charged because the number of protons equals the number of electrons
All neutrons are alike, all protons are alike and all electrons are alike - so what makes atoms different the number of protons and electrons in each atom. Hydrogen is the simplest with 1 proton and 1 electron; Helium has 2 of each
Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus
Atomic Mass Adding the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus -
Isotope different form of same atom. Has same atomic number (protons in nucleus), but different atomic mass - neutrons are added
Radioisotopes Isotopes are unstable and give off energy that can damage cells. Used to destroy cancer cells and for diagnostic
3 Chemical Bonds Ionic; Covalent; Hydrogen
Ionic Bond caused by a transfer of electrons between atoms. sodium has 11 protons and 11 electrons, but single electron in outer shell make it unstable so donates it to chlorine who needs an extra electron forming ionic bond NaCl
Covalent Bond sharing electrons by outer shells of atoms. Oxygen needs 2 and Hydrogen needs 1-2 hydrogen share 1 electron each with an oxygen atom = H2O. strong bond, no dissolve in water; carbon always forms covalent bonds with O, N, H-in body; makes protein, enzyme,
Hydrogen Bond weak positive charge of water molecule on hydrogen end, and negative around oxygen end cause polarity. makes water molecules stick together, it is a polar molecule
Ions Atoms that carry an electrical charge. if an electron is lost or gained, the electrical charge changes from neutral to + or -. If an electron (-) is lost ion is +.
Cation Ion with positive charge
Anion Ion with negative charge
Electrolyte substance that forms ions when it is dissolved in water. capable of conducting electrical current; ECG and EEG
Ionization when electrolytes break apart in solution they dissociate; salt breaks into Na+ and Cl-. because the result is 2 ions, process is ionization. Only electrolytes ionize
Water is essential for... universal solvent; temperature regulator; lubricant; chemical reactions (breakdown carbs) protective (surrounds brain)
Oxygen is essential for.. used by cells to liberate energy from the food we eat
Catalysts speed up chemical reaction
Enzymes proteins that act as catalysts
Acid an electrolyte that disassociates into a hydrogen ion (H+) and an anion. strong acids disassociate completely into H+ (stomach acid) vinegar remains mostly unassociated
Base substances that combine with H+
pH unit of measurement that indicates how many H+ are in the solution. at midpoint of 7 solution is neutral; less than 7 has more H+ and is acid; more than 7 has less H+ and is base or alkaline
pH of less than 7 indicates a... is acid - contains more H+
pH of more than 7 indicates a... base - contains less H+
pH of -0- has _____ H+ and is an _____ more ; acid
Normal blood pH is _____ to _____ 7.35-7.45 - slightly alkaline
Acidosis blood pH is less than 7.35
Alkalosis blood pH is more than 7.45
Body regulates pH with... kidneys; lungs and buffers
ATP adenosine triphosphate - energy transfer molecule; food is transferred to ATP that can be used by cells for energy
Created by: catchris



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