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Herlihy 1

Intro to Human Body

Homeostasis Homeo (same)stasis (staying) The body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment in response to a changing environment.
Body levels of organization atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ systems, human organism
Anatomy branch of science that studies the structure of the body; Greek-to dissect
Physiology branch of science that studies how the body works
Pathophysiology studies the consequences of improper functioning; how body works when diseased; what happens during a heart attack
Major Organ Systems Integumentary; Skeletal; Muscular; Nervous; Endocrine; Circulatory; Lymphatic; Immune; Respiratory; Digestive; Urinary; Reproductive
Anatomical Position Standing erect; face forward; arms at sides; toes and palms forward
Superior and inferior Superior = above; Inferior = below Head is superior to feet
Anterior / Posterior Anterior = front; Posterior = back Heart is anterior to the spinal cord, and posterior to the breastbone
Ventral / Dorsal Same as Anterior/Posterior Dorsal is back (dorsal fin of fish)
Medial / Lateral Divides right from left: Medial = toward midline; Lateral = away from midline. Ears are lateral to nose; hand is closer to lateral thigh than medial thigh
Proximal / Distal Proximal = structure nearer the point of attachment; Distal = point farther from attachment Wrist is distal to elbow Wrist is distal to elbow
Superficial / Deep Near surface or not. Skin is superficial to muscles; Bones are deep to skin.
Central / Peripheral Center = nearer center; Peripheral = away from center. Heart is central, blood vessels are peripherally. Brain and spinal cord are central nervous system, nerves are peripheral nervous system.
Sagittal Plane divided body into right and left
Frontal Plane divides body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal). Also coronal plane
Transverse Plane divides body horizontally - upper (superior) and lower (inferior). when a body or organ is cut horizontally or transversely it is called a cross section.
Antecubital front of elbow
Brachial arm
Axillary armpit
Buccal cheek area
Inguinal where thigh meets trunk - groin
Femoral thigh
Patellar front of knee
Caudal tailbone
Deltoid rounded area of shoulder closest to the upper arm
Occipital back of head
Popliteal back of knee
2 Major cavities Dorsal and Ventral. Doral is in back and divided into cranial and spinal (vertebral). Ventral divided into thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity.
Mediastinum Divides the 2 compartments (pericardial and pleural) of the thoracic cavity containing the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, large blood vessels attached to heart
Dorsal Cavity contains cranial and spinal cavities
Ventral Cavity contains thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities divided by mediastinum
Created by: catchris