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Chapter 16

Scientific Revolution

Rene Descartes French philosopher and mathematician who lived from 1596-1650. His discourse on Method states that all assumptions had to be proven on the basis of known facts.
Scientific Revolution emerged during early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.
Copernicus, heliocentric view Proposed the theory that put the sun in the center of the universe with the planets traveling around the sun.
Deism The religious arm of the enlightenment
John Locke ,two treatises of civil government The greatest of the enlightenment thinkers , a philosophical defense for the "glorious revolution" in England.
essay concerning human understanding One of the greatest works of the enlightenment along with newtons principia stressed the importance of the environment on human development
Tabula rasa The human mind was born as a blank slate and registered input from the senses passively .
The philosophes Committed to fundamental reform in society they were extremely successful in popularizing the enlightenment ,though we're not professional philosophers like Locke and Descartes
Voltaire Perhaps the most influential of all enlightenment philosophers he wrote his criticisms with a sharp sarcasm that ridiculed those with whom he dis agreed .
Baron de Montesquieu, spirit of the laws member of the french nobility; hated the absolutism of Louis XIV. He called for seperation of powers in government into three branches (monarchy, nobility, and the rest of the population.
checks and balances would ensure that no single branch of government became too powerful as the other two branches could excess power.
Jean- Jacques Rousseau, Social Contract (1762) believed that too much of an emphasis on property, and not enough consideration of people, was a root cause of social injustice
Mary Wollstonecraft English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
William Harvey English physician; announced that blood circulates though the body.
Enlightenment Intellectual revolution during the late 17th and 18th centuries in Europe; Emphasis on reason, individualism, and reasoning based on observation.
Scientific method a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments
Issac Newton the intellectual that showed the power of the human mind and influenced the great minds of the eighteenth century that since nature is rational; he discouraged metaphysics and the supernatural as opposed to empirical observation.
principle of universal gravitation piece of writing by Newton; natural laws of motion; every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship
Principia, 1687 piece of writing by Newton; another name for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; details of the principle of universal gravitation
Catherine the Great was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 9 July 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of 67.
Pugachev Rebellion The unrest intensified as the 18th century wore on, with more than fifty peasant revolts occurring between 1762 and 1769
Enlightened Despotism A form of absolute monarchy inspired by the Enlightenment; absolute ruler promotes the good of the people.
Frederick the Great Prussian ruler from 1740-1786 who was profoundly influenced by the Enlightenment and gained Silesia and Polish territory in the War of Austrian Succession.
War of Austrian Succession War fought by Austria, Britain, and the Netherlands against Prussia, France, and Spain because Frederick the Great invaded the Hapsburg empire and annexed Silesia.
Seven Years' War A war fought between Prussia, supported by Britain, and an alliance of Austria, France, and Russia who wanted to conquer Prussia and divide its territories.
Galileo Galilei Developed the laws of motion, validated Copernicus' heliocentric view with the aid of a telescope, and first to use the telescope as a scientific instrument.
laws of motion Gravity is a universal force that produced uniform acceleration and all falling objects descend with equal velocity regardless of their weight.
telescope It gathers light and directs it to a single point, first used by Galileo as a scientific instrument.
Francis Bacon Formalized the empirical method that had already been used by Brahe and Galileo. His inductive method formed the backbone of the modern scientific method.
empiricism A theory of inductive reasoning that calls for acquiring evidence through observation and experimentation rather than deductive reason and speculation.
Tycho Brahe A Danish astronomer, carefully recorded movements of the planets he constructed the most accurate tables of observations that had been drawn up for centuries.
Johannes Kepler He utilized Brahe's observations to discover that the orbits of the planets were elliptical, not circular, he published "On the Motion of Mars."
Maria Theresa She inherited the Habsburg empire from her father Charles VII and wanted to improve the condition of her people through absolute rule.
Maria Theresa She inherited the Habsburg empire from her father Charles VII and wanted to improve the condition of her people through absolute rule.
Joseph II Son and co-regent of Maria Theresa. He was one of the greatest "Enlightened Despots" and was deeply influenced by the Enlightenment and its emphasis on reforms.
Physiocrats Leaded by Francois Quesnay, they taught that it is the self-interest of individuals or groups of individuals that moves the economy. They also believed that wealth comes solely from the value of land by means of agriculture or development.
Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations A Scottish professor of philosophy, highly critical of mercantilism. Often considered the father of capitalism; This book written by Smith advocated that a free market economy would be beneficial to society.
Salon movement Women played major role - many of the brightest minds of Enlightenment assembled to discuss major issues - took part in discussions
Madame de Stael Ran a salon and wrote widely read books deplored subordination of women to men that the Revolution had done so little to change.
Noble savage "noble savage" man in a simpler state of nature was good and was corrupted by the materialism of civilization
Denis Diderot, the encyclopedia Encyclopedie - 28 volumes with 3,000 pages & illustrations - covered everything known about science, technology & history. criticized the Church and gov and praised religious tolerance
Marquis de Beccaria Marquis de Beccaria "An Essay on Crime and Punishment" - reccomends a system of laws that apply equally to all classes
Fran├žois Quesnay 1694-1774; leader of the physiocrats in France who opposed mercantilist policies; sought to reform the existing agrarian system by instituting laissez faire in agriculture; believed the French government and nobility had too much control over land
Classical Liberalism the belief in liberty of the individual and equality before the law
Created by: birmingham