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Chapter 16 Part 1

AP Euro - Absolutism

TermDefinition
Absolutism Derived from the traditional assumption of power and the belief in "divine right of kings"
Jean Bodin Among the first to provide a theoretical basis for absolutist states. Believed that only absolutism could provide order and force people to obey the government
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan Pessimistic view of human beings in a state of nature: Solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short strong Anarchy results Central drive in every person is power
Bishop Bossuet Principle advocate of "divine right of kings" in France during the reign of Louis XIV. Believed "divine right" meant that the king was placed on throne by God, and therefore owed his authority to no man or group
“Divine Right” of kings The doctrine that kings and queens have a God-given right to rule and that rebellion against them is a sin
First Estate clergy; 1% of population
Second Estate nobility; 3-4% of population
Third Estate middle class, artisans, urban workers, and peasants.
Henry IV Laid the foundation for France becoming the strongest European power in the 17th century First king of the Bourbon Dynasty Weakening of the nobility
Bourbon Dynasty Royal family that ruled France
Nobility of the Sword Old Nobility, not allowed to influence the royal council anymore.
Nobility of the Robe New nobles who purchased their titles from the monarchy, became high officials in the government and remained loyal to the king
Duke of Sully Finance minister A. His reforms enhanced the power of the monarchy B. Mercantilism C. Reduced Royal Debt D. Reformed the tax system to make it more equitable and efficient E. Oversaw improved transportation
Louis XIII As a youth, his regency was beset by corruption and mismanagement A. Feudal nobles and princes increased their power B. Certain nobles convinced him to assume power and exile his mother
Cardinal Richelieu Laid foundation for absolutism in France He was a politique He used the Intendant system
Politique A person who places political issues ahead of religious principles
Intendant system Used to weaken the nobility Replaced local officials with civil servants
Louis XIV, “Sun King” Quintessential absolute ruler in European history Personified the idea that sovereignty of the state resides in the ruler Strong believer in "divine right" of kings He had the longest reign in European history
“L’ état, c’est moi” I am the state
Fronde a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.
Cardinal Mazarin Controlled France while Louis XIV was a child
Corvee Forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects
Versailles Palace Under Louis XIV, this became the grandest and most impressive palace in all of Europe
Edict of Fontainebleau 1685 - Revoked the Edict of Nantes
Jansenists Catholics who held some Calvinist ideas
Mercantilism State control over a country's economy in order to achieve a favorable balance in trade with other countries
Bullionism A nation's policy of accumulating as much precious metal(gold and silver)as possible while preventing its outward flow to other countries
Jean-Baptiste Colbert His goal was economic self-sufficiency for France
Balance of Power No one would be allowed to dominate the continent since a coalition of other countries would rally a threatening power. Dutch stadtholder William of Orange was the most important figure in thwarting Louis' expansionism
War of the League of Augsburg In response to another invasion of the Spanish Netherlands by Louis XIV in 1683, the League of Augsburg formed in 1686. Demonstrated emergence of balance of power William of Orange(now king of England)brought England in against France
War of Spanish Succession Cause:The will of Charles II gave all Spanish territories to the grandson of Louis XIV. Grand Alliance emerged in opposition to France Battle of Blenheim
Treaty of Utrecht Maintained the balance of power in Europe Ended the expansionism of Louis XIV Spanish possessions were partitioned Though Louis' grandson was enthroned in Spain, the unification of the Spanish and Bourbon dynasties were prohibited
Philip II Allowed Spain's power to reach its zenith Along with Charles V, he laid the foundation for absolutism in Spain
Escorial Palace that was used to demonstrate Philip II's power
"Price Revolution” Inflation from this hurt domestic industries that were unable to export goods.
Spanish Armada The Spanish a fleet of warships. Lost to England in 1588, this loss has been seen as the decline of the Spanish empire
Treaty of the Pyrenees, 1659 1659 - marked end of Spain as a Great Power
Baroque Reflected the age of absolutism Began in Catholic Reformation countries to teach in a concrete and emotional way and demonstrate the glory and power of the Catholic Church
Bernini Personified baroque architecture and sculpture
Schönbrunn Built in Austria in response to the Versailles Palace by Habsburg emperor Leopold I
Winter Palace Built largely on the influence of Versailles, in St. Petersburg, Russia by Peter the Great.
Caravaggio, tenebrism Italian painter Depicted highly emotional scenes Perhaps 1st important painter of the Baroque era
Peter Paul Rubens Flemish painter Worked much for the Habsburg court in Brussels Emphasized color and sensuality Nearly half of his works dealt with Christian subjects
Diego Velázquez Perhaps the greatest court painter of the era Numerous portraits of the Spanish court and their surroundings
Artemisia Gentileschi Famous for vivid depictions of dramatic scenes and her "Judith" paintings
Dutch Style Did not fit Baroque style of trying to overwhelm the viewer Reflected the Dutch Republic's wealth and religious toleration of secular subjects Reflected the urban and rural settings of Dutch life during the Golden Age of the Netherlands
Rembrandt Painter Perhaps the greatest of all Baroque artists although he doesn't fit neatly into any category Scenes covered an enormous range throughout his career used extremes of light in the Baroque style
Jan Vermeer Paintings of ordinary people in simple scenes
French Classicism Time period that had artwork from the French
Nicolas Poussin painter Paintings rationally organized to achieve harmony and balance Focused early on classical scenes from antiquity or Biblical scenes Later focused on landscape paintings Not typical baroque
Jean Baptiste Racine Dramatist His plays were often funded by Louis XIV Plays were written in the classical style Wrote some of the most intense emotional works for the stage
Moliere Dramatist His plays often focused on social struggles Made fun of the aristocracy, upper bourgeoisie and higher church officials
J.S. Bach Greatest of the baroque composers Often wrote dense and polyphonic structures Wrote in a variety of genes, both choral and instrumental Extremely prolific
Created by: Jrod42