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upper respiratory system nose, pharynx(nasopharynx,oropharynx,laryngopharynx)
fuction of NOSE filtration, sense of smell, resonance, warming of inspired air, heat transfer to the air, pulsating of blood
nasal septum is made up of cartilage divided the nose
anterior portion of the nasal cavity vestibule
extends from external naris to the internal naris nasal cavity
hair follicles in the anterior portion vibrissae (first line of defense)
three porjections arise from lateral walls Turbinates (conchae) superior, middle, inferior
located in the membrane lining above the superior nasal conchae olfactory region
what is the lining of the the nose capillaries and pseudostratified ciliated columnar celss with goblet cell
located behind the nasal and oral cavities pharynx
what is the function of the pharynx passageway for air and food, provides a resonating chamber
portion of the pharynx that lies above the soft palate, only part not directll involved with swallowing nasopharynx
swollen of the pharyngeal tonsils adenoid
lies posterior to the oral cavity oropharynx (two pairs of tonsils-palatine and lingual)
extends from base of tongue to opening of esophagus laryngopharyx
part of the lower respiratory system larynx, tracheobronchial tree, lung parenchyma
function of the LARYNX acts as a conducting channel, protection, cough reflex, speech function
only complete ring of cartilage cricoid cartilage
adams apple thyroid cartilage
attached to the vocal folds and pharyngeal muscle arytenoid cartilage(plays a significant role in the COCAL MOVEMENT
located on top of each arytenoid cartilage corniculate cartilage
rod shope, connects epiglottis to arytenoid cartilage cuneiform cartilage
fuction of tracheobronchial tree system of conducting tubes to allow for the passage of gases to and from the lung parenchyma
causes bronchospasm in the lung lamina propia
lobar bronchi second generation
segmental bronchi third generation
subsegmental bronchi 4th-9th (80% of the normal airway resistance)
bronchioles 9th-11th
terminal bronchioles 16th
fuction of terminal bronchioles heat, humidify and conduct inspired air
goblet cell production of mucus
how many mL of mucus/day 100 mL, 95 %water, 2% glycoprotiens, 1% carbo, trace amt of DNA, lipid
hair-like projection and size cilia, 2 cm/min
which part of the lung allow for molecular gas exchange bet. blood and alveolar air lung parenchyma
lung parenchyma is supplied by what pul. artery and venous system
what is the primary unit of respiration primary lobule
acinus is consists of what respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and the alveolar sacs
it contains flat alveolar epithelium, void of cilia,mucus and serous gland respiratory bronchioles
airse from the respiratory bronchiole, terminate in clusters of alveoli, 35% of gas exchange alveolar ducts
65 % of gas exchange alveolar sacs
cup -shaped out puching lined by epithelium alveoli
alveolar walls have minute openings called Pores of Kohn
type I alveolar cell thin, flat simple squamous epithelium
type II alveolar cell most numerous, cuboidal in shape and site of PRODUCTION of surfactant
detergent like phospholipid substance which prevents alveolar collapse during expiration surfactant
type III cell alveolar macrophageso or dust cell
broad inferior portion of the lung base
narrow superior portion of the lung apex
a vertical slit in each lung hilus
concavity in the left lung in which the heart lues cardiac notch
divides each lung into lobes fissure
right lung have how many fissure 3
left lung, how many fissure 2
right lung have how many segments 10 segments
left lung, how many segments 8-10 segments
double walled serous membrane that encloses each lung pleural membrane
inner layer that adheres firmly to the lungs visceral layer
space between the two layers, contains a serous lubracating fluid to reduce friction pleural cavity
what are the primary inspiratory muscles diaphragm(innervation of left and right phrenic nerve), parasternal intercartilaginous muscle, external intercostal muscle
three types of fibers autonomic afferent fibers, parasympathetic efferent fibers, sympathetic efferent fibers
receptors found in alveoli stretch receptors
receptors located in bronchi and bronchioles iritant
located in the larynx cough
carotid sinus and aortic arch pressor
receptors found in aortic and carotid BODIES chemoreceptors
receptors found in alveolar wall-gives feeling of dyspnea j receptor
fibers travel via the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerve autonomic AFFERENT fibers
fibers to tracheobrochial tree contained in the vagus nerve (produced ACh, produces bronchial smooth muscle CONTRACTION, vasolidation and glandular secretion) PARAsympathetic efferent fiber
fibers emerge from the thoracic spinal medulla, norepi and epi when stimulated, relaxes bronchial smooth muscle, inhibits glandular secretions and causes vasoconstriction sympathetic efferent fibers
secretion of stimulation is EXCITATORY, constriction of bronchial smooth muscle and increased mucus alpha
stimulatino is either inhibitory or excitatory, located in the heart and lungs beta
rate and force of contraction is increased in the heart beta I action
dilation of bronchial smooth muscle and decreased secretion of mucous beta II action
alveolar-capillary membrane in thickness 0.5 microns
factors affect diffusion in the lung transit time, pressure difference across alveolar, distance across alveolar,cross sectional area
respiratory is controlled via three mechanism respiratory center, chemical control, reflex control
located in the upper pons, pneumotaxic center, sends signals to the inspiratory area, acts to TURN OFF inspiration pontine respiratory centers
located in lower pons, transmits signals to the inspiratory area to prevent the TURN OFF of the inspiratory signal, always overridden apneustic center
the resp. centers receive feedback signals from changes in the chemical composition chemical control
changes in these chemical stimulates chemical control in the lungs PCO2, PO2, pH
located on the ventral surfaces of the medulla near the exit of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerve central chemoreceptors
peripheral chemoreceptors are carotid bodies and aortic bodies
located bilaterally in the bifurcation of the common carotid, their afferent fibers join the glossopharyngeal nerve carotid bodies
located along the aortic arch, their afferent fibers fun into the vagus nerve aortic bodies
factors that affect diffusion transit time, pressure difference, cross-sectional area
respiration is controlled via three mechanism respiratory center, chemical control, reflex control
located in the reticular formation of the medulla below the pons medullary respiratory cneter
pontine respiratory centers include pneumotaxic center
located in the upper pons, acts to turn off inspiration pneumotaxic center
strong signal sent decreased inspiratory time, increased respiratory rate
weak signal sent to medulla increased inspiratory time, decreased respiratory rate
apneustic center is located at located in lower pons, prevent the turn-off , always overridden by pneumotaxic center
normal pH of CSF 7.32
If there is a small change in the CSF pH caused by CO2, what is the response 2-5 liters per minute per mmHg
a rise in arterial CO2 will result in increase in the number of afferent impulses sent to inspiratory portion of the medulla
peripheral chemoreceptors response needs how much to response to change in CO2 10 mm Hg
chemoreceptors DOESN'T response to this change PO2 change
peripheral chemoreceptors response if there is decrease in arterial PO2 to below 60 mmHg, to stimulate ventilation
peripheral chemoreceptors will have response to pH if it falls by 0.1 unit and evern then the response is weak
what are the reflex control of ventilation gamma-Efferent system,hering-breuer reflex, deflation reflex, j receptors, baroreceptors
feedback system into the spinal cord that adjust the parttern of breathing according to the MECHANICAL state of the lung, controls the strength of muscular contraction gamma EFFERENT system
these aer stretch receptors located in the bronchi and bronchioles, control depth of inspiration, influence OFF swithching of inspiration hering-breuer reflex
a reflex responding to injury, not involved in normal breathing deflaction reflex
located in hte lung parenchyma, stimulated by pulmonary capillary distension, results in rapid shallow breathing pattern J receptors
located aortic and carotid sinuses, respond to changes in blood pressure, increase systolic bp will cause HYPOventilation Baroreceptors
exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood external respirationi
factors that affect external respiration distribution of pul. perfusion and ventilation
Created by: ayson27