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68C NUTR Ph.1 T.7

Basic Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
Discuss the role of the nurse in promoting good nutrition Encourage dietary compliance, Take/record patient weights, Patient intakes, Observe clinical signs of poor nutrition, Communication link
Under the Dietary Guidelines Key Recommendations, what are the four focus areas? 1.Balancing calories 2.Food(s) components to reduce 3.Foods and nutrients to increase 4.Healthly eating patterns
Food and nutrients should be increased among which specific population groups? pregnant, breastfeeding, 50 years and older
List the six classes of essential nutrients carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water
List the energy provided by each of the following in kcal Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Alchohol Carbohydrates 4kcals/g, Protein 4kcals/g, Fats 9kcals/g, Alcohol 7kcals/g
Provides energy, classified as simple or complex Carbohydrates
List the two types of simple carbohydrates and their subdivisions 1.Monosaccharides- Glucose, Fructose, Galactose 2.Disaccharide- Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose
Polysaccharides are broken down into 1.Starch 2.Glycogen 3.Dietary fiber
Most concentrated source of energy, component of cell membrane, carrier of A,D,E,K) Fats (lipids)
Egg yolk, butter, cream, fats in meat and poultry Saturated fats
olive oils, olives, peanut oil, avocados Monounsaturated fats
Safflower oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, most fish oils Polyunsaturated fats
Protein tissue growth, repair, wound healing, building blocks for collagen, energy source if necessary
Lacking 1 or more essential amino acids, plant origin Incomplete proteins
Contains all 9 essential amino acids, animal origin Complete proteins
Name the 2 types of fiber Insoluble(vegetables, wheat,whole grains), Soluble(fruits, oats, barley, legumes)
What is the daily dietary recommendation of fiber? answer within grams 21-38 grams
Saturated Fat saturated with hydrogen, animal origin, increase blood cholesterol levels, <10% of total calorie intake
Unsaturated Fat One or more places on chain where hydrogen is missing ie monounsaturated/polyunsaturated, blood cholesterol lowering effect
Trans Fat Produced during hydrogenation, found in foods partially hydrogenated, increase blood cholesterol levels
Cholesterol Belongs to class of substances called sterols, does NOT provide energy, synthesized in liver, <300mg/d
Water soluble vitamins B vitamins and vitamin C, not able to be stored, excreted in urine
Fat soluble vitamins vitamins A,D,E,K, carried in fatty portions of food, stored in body, excess= toxic levels
Vitamin C recommended intake and food sources Men-90mg/d Women-75mg/d Smokers-+35mg/d, upper limit 2g/d, Citrus fruits,juices
Vitamin D essential for Calcium metabolism, food sources= liver, egg yolks, fish, milk
Vitamin K role in blood clotting, anticoagulant drug therapy, green leafy vegetables, deficiencies=increase prothrombin time
Folate (Folic Acid) Reduces risk of neural tube defects, food sources=green leafy vegetables, legumes
Calcium recommended intake and food sources Adults <50=1000mg Adults >50=1200mg Osteoporosis=1500mg/d, milk, cheese, vegetables, fish
Sodium Younger adults- 1500mg/d Adults-1300mg/d Older adults 1200mg/d
Excess Sodium can lead to elevate BP, exacerbate edema, increase urinary calcium excretion
Potassium deficiency leads to Increased BP, risk of kidney stones, bone loss, hypokalemia
What are some of the factors inhibiting Iron absorption Phytates, polyphenols, medications, calcium in milk, vegetable proteins
Iron recommendations Adolescent girls-15mg/d Premenopausal adult women-18mg/d Postmenopausal women/adult/children-8mg/d Pregnant women-27mg/d
Created by: ajwildasin30
 

 



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