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WVSOM -- Genetics

Chromosomal Structure

Supercoiling When the two strands of DNA are twisted around each other they coil up.
Chromatin DNA plus protein.
Heterochromatin highly condensed, darkly staining chromatin
Euchromatin less dense, lightly staining, transcriptionally active, chromatin.
Solenoid coiling Nucleosomes will wrap around each other to form tubes
Histones proteins that form octameric complexes, which eukaryotic DNA wraps around. They are the most abundant
Nucleosomes histone octamers and associated DNA, not including the linker regions
Histone 1 (H1) binds linkers together
Histones are acids or bases? bases! They are positively charged molecules
Solenoid tangling Chromosomal condensation during prophase also involves solenoids tangling in complex patterns to form the mitotic (or meiotic) chromosomes.
Scaffoid Proteins Ties the solenoids together to form the condensed, mitotic chromosomes. Maintain supercoiling
Bands in mitotic chromosomes dark staining regions, which are believed to consist of more tightly packed DNA.
Structure of Mitotic (Meiotic) Chromosomes Bands Centromeres Arms Telomeres
Centromere Region of a chromosome that is bound to the mitotic spindle. Dark bands are called G bands
metacentric chromosome central centromeres
Submetacentric chromosome off center centromere
Acrocentric Centromere towards end with a satellite at the end
Telocentric Centromere at the end. not found in humans
Arms chromosomes are divided by the centromere into two regions known as arms. Shorter arm is p arm (petite) Larger arm is q arm
Telomeres The ends of chromosomes
Karyotype Number, size and banding patterns of all mitotic chromosomes.
Karyotype numbers Larger to smaller
Created by: tjamrose