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Heredity

Chapter 5 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Allele An alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait; can be dominant or recessive
Genotype The genetic make up of an organism
Phenotype Outward physical appearance and behavior of an organism as a result of its genotype
Punnett square A tool to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring that shows the different ways alleles can combine
Polygenic Inheritance Occurs when a group of gene pairs acts together and produces a specific trait, such as human eye color, skin color, or height
Chromosome Structure in a cell's nucleus that contains hereditary material
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material of all organisms; made up of two twisted strands of sugar-phosphate molecules and nitrogen bases
Dominant Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait
Fertilization In sexual reproduction, the joining of a sperm and egg
Gene Section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins
Genetic engineering Biological and chemical methods to change the arrangement of a gene's DNA to improve crop production, produce large volumes of medicine, and change how cells perform their normal functions
Genetics The study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles
Haploid Cell that has half the number of chromosomes as body cells
Diploid Cell whose similar chromosomes occur in pairs
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Heterozygous Describes an organism with two different alleles for a trait
Homozygous Describes an organism with two alleles that are the same for a trait
Hybrid An offspring that was given different genetic information for a trait from each parent
Incomplete dominance Production of a phenotype that is intermediate between the two homozygous parents
Mutation Any permanent change in a gene or chromosome of a cell; may be beneficial, harmful, or have little effect on an organism
Recessive Describes a trait that is covered over, or dominated, by another form of that trait and seems to disappear
Sex-linked gene An allele inherited on a sex chromosome and that can cause human genetic disorders such as color blindness and hemophilia
Variation Inherited trait that makes an individual different from other members of the same species and results from a mutation in the organism's genes
Created by: Mrs. Rugari