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2014 AICP Full

Pursuing verified and complete set: please contact with corrections and ideas

QuestionAnswer
What is the dominant land use in the U.S.? Agriculture
How many Native American reservations are there in the U.S.? here are about 310 Indian reservations in the United States, meaning not all of the country's 550-plus recognized tribes have a reservation | 55,700,000 acres
What is the largest single Native American reservation? Navajo, 16 million acres in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. The smallest is a 1.32-acre parcel in California where the Pit River Tribe's cemetery is located.
What is the average per capita per day water usage? 50 gallons (but could be calculated as 120 - 180 gallons/person/day, depending on how is calculated and if lawns are being watered)
What are the 6 key pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act? Nitrogen oxide, Carbon monoxide, Lead, Sulfur dioxide, ozone, and particulates
Who wrote "Man and Nature; or, Physical geography as modified by human action" and what year? 1864. George Perkins Marsh, inspired the conservationist movement. Recognized the power of man and ability to threaten his own welfare through the manipulation of nature - therefore must concserve
Who wrote Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the U.S.? 1878 John Wesley Powell, proposal to foster settlement (resulting from Homestead Act 1862) and conserve water in the arid west - laid out concrete strategy for settling the West w/o fighting over scarce water. new water was going to be an issue in west
Who founded the Sierra Club, and what year? 1892. John Muir, to promote the protection and preservation of the natural environment
Who was Gifford Pinochet? First director of the U.S. Forest Service (1905), leader of conservation movement, advocating for both preservation and scientific management of natural resources
Who wrote The Last Landscape and what year? 1959. William H. Whyte, coined the term greenway. introduced many cornerstone ideas for land conservation, urging all of us to make better use of the land that has survived amid suburban sprawl
Who wrote Silent Spring, and what year? 1962. Rachel Carson, about the harmful effects of pesticides on animal, plant and human life | accused the chemical industry with disinformation
When was the USGS formed, and why? 1879, to survey and classify all public domain lands |P resident Rutherford B. Hayes
What is the largest concrete structure in the US? Grand Coulee Dam, on the Columbia River in central Washington State, built for irrigation, electric power generation, and flood control. 592 m (5,223 ft) in length and 168 m (550 ft) in height. More than 9 million cubic meters of concrete were used.
When was the first Earth Day? April 22, 1970, John McConnell (peace activist)
What is a conservation easement? separates ownership of land from the right to develop that land
Just vs. Marinette County and what year 1972 Established that env. protection regulations (zoning and conditional use permit) can be reasonable use of police power and not a taking if used to protect presently enjoyed public rights i.e. the natural wetlands.
Agins v. Tiburon 1980 Sup.Court ruled that open space reqmts did not result in a taking of property | regulation of private property affects a taking if it does not substantially advance legitimate state interests€ | this ruling later abrogated by Lingle v chevron 2005
Zero-Base Budgeting Not based on previous year’s budget; Each year’s budget starts at a base of zero, and each program and expenditure in the budget must be justified annually; Define “decision packages” tied to long-range plan objectives; Developed by Texas Instruments
Management by Objective (MBO) Peter Drucker: Overarching objectives by a collaborative process; 1) Determination and communication of organizational goals; 2) interpretation and definition of those goals into performance objectives for individuals; and 3) the measurement of progress t
Subdivision design covers street layouts, lots, and blocks
3 basic elements of subdivision requirements 1) Plat (shows the location and boundaries of streets, lots/parcels, and other site info); 2) Design/construction stds to establish specifics of how improvements will be built; 3) Exactions specify subdividers responsibility for financing public improveme
"A budget may be characterized as a series of goals with price tags attached" Aaron Wildansky | favored incremental budgeting and trial in error over precautionary principle
General obligation bonds Taxing power of the jurisdiction is pledged to pay interest upon, and retire the debt; Can be sold to finance permanent types of improvement such as schools, municipal buildings, parks, and rec facilities; Voter approval may be required
Revenue bonds Sold for projects that produce revenues; Are not backed by the full faith and credit of the local jurisdiction, but are financed in the long-term through service charges or fees
Lease-Purchase Agreements Facility is constructed by a private company or authority, and then leased by the municipality. Rental over the years of the lease will have paid the total original cost plus interest, and at end of lease period title conveyed to the municipality.
Airport planning Ground access as new “hot” issue in airport planning. Regional planning concern due to ISTEA and CAA. Funding from sources such as passenger facility charge, federal ticket tax, and revenue bonds.
Uses compatible with airport noise-affected areas Those that lack areas of constant human occupation. I.e. manufacturing, warehousing, distribution.
TEA 21 The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century was enacted June 9, 1998. TEA-21 authorizes the Federal surface transportation programs for highways, highway safety, and transit for the 6-year period 1998-2003 $198 billion in surface transportation in
ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. 1st federal legislation post-Interstate Highway System era. collaborative planning requirements, giving significant additional powers to MPOs. Signed into law by President George H. W. Bush, it
SAFETEA-LU 2005 Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transp. Equity Act: A Legacy for Users. | $284 billion authorization. | Funded New Starts Program- develop new rail systems. | Criticized for pork - infamous "Bridge to nowhere" Gravina Island Bridge in Alaska
MAP-21 2012. Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act | $105 billion, 2 year bill - The CBO estimates reduce budget deficit over 10 years by $16.3b| consolidates funding programs | "Alternative Transp" for bike/ped - could lead to less $
Dolan v. City of Tigard 1994 Woman wanted to expand store&pave lot. City said if she dedicate land to greenway/bike path. Ruled taking because city did not prove it would reduce traffic. must be proportional relatioship between requirement and a state interest. - rational nexus
Nollan v. California Coastal Commission 1987. CA coastal commission required beachfront prop owners wanting permits to maintain pathways for public access. Ruled a taking because compensation was not provided. essential nexus
Loretto v Teleprompter Manhattan CATV Corporation 1982. Loretto owned a five story building. Manhattan Telepromter installed cable tv wires. Court ruled that, when there is a physical occupation, there is a taking.
Pennsylvania Coal Company v Mahon 1922. Ruled that this was not a taking. Ruled that if regulation goes too far (extent of diminution in value), it will be a taking. Provided basis of modern definition of taking under 5th amendment. First case to say that a land regulation was a taking.
Penn Central Transportation Company v The City of New York 1978. Hist. Pres. Penn Central wanted to develop. Denied. Given TDR instead. Sued. Court ruled 3 factors determine takings: 1) economic impact of regulation 2) character of the regulation 3) does it sufficiently deprive property rights
What is CAFE? 1975. Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for light trucks and passenger cars. started at 18 and now at 30.2 and 24.1 (2011). in 2012 34/36 and combined 54.5 by 2025
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 1976 Cradle-to-grave legislation for hazardous waste materials (EPA controled)
What is CERCLA? and what year? 1980. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. Superfund, tax on the chem. and petrol. industries for 1.6b for abandoned sites. EPA power to seek out parties responsible for hazardous releases and hold accountable for cleanup
what is SARA and what year? 1986 The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act - amended CERCLA. increased fund to $8.5B, focused on human health concerns and great community participation
What is NPDES, and what year? 1972. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System: Authorized by the CWA, to control water pollution by regulation point sources that discharge pollutants into U.S. water bodies; Industrial and municipal polluters must obtain a NPDES discharge permit
What is a 404 Permit? Section 404 of the CWA created program to regulate the discharge of dredged or fill material into US waters and wetlands. Requires permit before dredged or fill material is discharged into US waters, unless the activity is exempt: some farming & forestry
Preservation v. conservation Preservation of wilderness (Muir), vs. Conservation (wise use of natural resources, Pinchot)
How has average size of single family detached homes changed over last 50 years? ~1,100SF or less → year 2010 = 2,340 SF peaked in 2008 at 2,582 and is coming back down for now.
1 acre in sq feet, hectares, square miles, square meters. 43560 sq feet | 0.404686 hectare | 0.0015625 sq miles | 4046.86 square meters
1 hectare in acres 2.47105 acres
1 square mile in acres 640 acres
What is an oligotrophic lake? A deep lake with a low supply of nutrients and low supply of organic matter
What is a eutrophic Lake? Eutrophication arises from the oversupply of nutrients, which induces explosive growth of plants and algae which, when such organisms die, consume the oxygen in the body of water, thereby creating the state of hypoxia.
Lingle v. Chevron 2005. takings are based on the severity of the burden and NOT whether regulation “substantially advance” governmental interest as was from Agins v. Tiburon - court referred back to Penn Central v New York.
Drosscape Alan Berger: adaptively reusing waste landscapes as a result of horizontal growht. Drosscape implies that dross, or waste, may be "scaped", or resurfaced, and reprogrammed for adaptive reuse.
Peter Calthorpe San Francisco-based architect, urban designer and urban planner. He is a founding member of the Congress for New Urbanism, a Chicago-based advocacy group formed in 1992 that promotes sustainable building practices.
Food Systems Planning Community food system planning is the collaborative planning process of developing and implementing local and regional land-use, economic development, public health, and environmental goals, programs and policies
Lawrence Veiller Father of the modern housing code. Sec. of the NY State Tenement House Comm. and helped draft the NY State Tenement House Act 1901 which established basic housing laws such as better fire exits and running water for bathrooms in every tenement.
Joint Fact Finding Method A collaborative process to resolve scientific disagreements and maximize public participation that and allows stakeholders and decision makers to seek agreement on Nature of the problem and what is (not) known.
What is Standard Deviation? The Standard Deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers are. Its symbol is σ (the greek letter sigma). The formula is the square root of the Variance. So now you ask, "What is the Variance?"
What is Variance in mathmatics The average of the squared differences from the Mean.
Commonwealth of Massachusetts v US EPA (2007). Supr Court case found that EPA can and should regulate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) as pollutants that may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare.
What is a Consensus Conference Denmark1980s Early attempt to include the public's opinions. Inform a citizen panel of complex tech. or scientific issue. Then panel consensus on implications of issue. Suitable for socially-relevant topics and/or ones which require public support.
14th amendment Sec. 1: State shall not deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws
5th Amendment nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
Nectow v. City of Cambridge 1928. Zoning. This residential zoning was found unconstitutional as regulations must bear a substantial relation to the public health, safety, morals or welfare.
Proportional Valuation Method Relates increases in community revenues and expenditures, not to population growth, but to development in a more general sense. Like the per capita multiplier method, this is an average costing approach.
Per Capita Multiplier Approach The per capita multiplier approach is a widely used average costing approach for estimating fiscal impacts. The approach uses demographic and budget data to estimate municipal service costs on a per capita basis
Employment Anticipation Method Marginal costing technique used to project the impact of industrial or commercial developments by relationship between employment and per-capita expenditures. use of multipliers: 1 employee = X$/capita expenditure.
Indian Reorganization Act 1934, sometimes known as the Indian New Deal. gave certain rights to and return to local self-government (could have own constitution) and a management of assets on a tribal basis (reservations).
Metromedia v City of San Diego In this 1981 case, the High Court decided that cities could regulate billboards and regarding commercial outdoor advertising, municipal government could treat it more harshly than noncommercial messages.
The City as a Growth Machine 1976 classic paper, by Harvey Molotch. later wrote Urban Fortunes 1987 with John Logan. Reversed course of urban theory: parcels not empty fields awaiting human action, but expression of the interests of the land-based elite.
Randall Arendt "Rural by Design" 1994 - "Conservation Development" was formulated in the early 1980s by this British-trained planner. He combined the idea of cluster and open space design with Ian McHarg's "design with nature" philosophy.
Coffee Klatch small, informal discussion with a group of people in a private home with light refreshments. The planner typically has a short presentation followed by questions and discussion.
Ernest Burgess 1925 Concentric Circle Theory. finds that growth happens by land uses expanding outward from one area to another. 5 rings: 1 CBD; 2 Industrial.; 3 transition, 4 Working class residential; 5 high class residential.
Concentric Circle Theory 1925 Ernest Burgess. finds that growth happens by land uses expanding outward from one area to another. 5 rings: 1 CBD; 2 Industrial.; 3 transition, 4 Working class residential; 5 high class residential.
Palustrine Palustrine systems include any inland wetland which lacks flowing water, contains ocean-derived salts in concentrations of less than 0.05%, and is non-tidal.
Lacustrine Lacustrine Plains (or lake plains) are lakes that get filled by incoming sediment
Littoral Zone The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
Name some of the main planning movements in order (may not be an exhaustive list). Public Health & Settlement House Movement, Garden City, City Beautiful Movement, City Efficient Movement, City Humane Movement, City Functional Movement, New Towns Movement, Collaborative/Advocacy Planning, New Urbanism, Sustainable Development.
Honshin Method Aligns an organization toward accomplishing a single goal. collective thinking power. Everyone is an expert and should contribute to the shared goal.
Edgeless Cities 2003 book by Robert Lang. Sprawling form of office space outside of downtowns. vast swaths of isolated buildings that are neither pedestrian friendly, nor easily accessible by public transit, and do not lend themselves to mixed use.
Robert Lang Edgeless Cities
Joel Garreau Edge City
Edge City 1991 book by Joel Garreau. Concentration of business, shopping, and entertainment outside a traditional downtown (or central business district) in what had previously been a residential or rural area.
Fred French Investing Co. v. City of New York TDR. The development rights, when severed, lose their economic value if they do not immediately attach to other property or are compensated under eminent domain proceedings or by a development bank and therefore alone are not proper compensation.
Robert Weaver first African-American to serve in the US Cabinet, as the head of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
A Pattern Language 1977 Christopher Alexander. Max 9% parking. Populations of 7,000. Web of shopping: corner for 1k people; Promenade for 50k; Regional for 300k.
Design With Nature 1971 Ian McHarg. Suitability Analysis for Land Development. Layer maps.
Growing Cooler 2008. Reid Ewing, Keith Bartholomew, Steve Winkelman, Jerry Walters, Don Chen. Focused on GHG reductions through compact development, reducing VMT, Complete Streets, TDR, Regional Land Use, Cap & Trade.
John DeGrove Florida's Father of growth Management - Smart Growth. 2005 book "Planning Policy and Politics". Greenways Movement.
Boomburb 2007 book by Robert Lang & Jennifer LeFurgy. Cities having more than 100k residents that are not the core cities in the metro, double-digit growth.
Jonathan Barnett "Smart Growth in a Changing World" 2007. USA is rapidly growing, Should expect over 100 million more people in next 50 years. Need for Smart Growth.
Clarence Arthur Perry Planner, sociologist, author, and educator. r worked in the New York City planning department where he became a strong advocate of the Neighborhood unit. "The Neighborhood Unit,” 1929
Searching for the Good Plan: A Meta-Analysis of Plan Quality Studies 2009 book by Philip Berke and David Godshalk. Comprehensive Plan Evaluation. Evaluate both internal and external characteristics.
The Land Ordinance Act 1785 - beginning of Public Land Survey System - Township, Range, Section - helped to sell land to pay off Revolutionary War debt.
Founder and developer of Savannah, GA 1733, James Oglethorpe. design units called "Ward" composed of 4 larger residential blocks and four smaller civic/retail blocks around a central square.
Homestead Act 1862. 160 acre parcels given to settlers if they resided on land for 5 years.
Central Place Theory 1933. Walter Christaller. Central places provide services to surrounding areas.
Sector Theory 1939. Homer Hoyt. modification of concentric zone theory to include outward progression.
Multiple Nuclei Model 1945. Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman. "The Nature of Cities"
Kevin Lynch "Image of the City" 1960. Visualize cities and neighborhoods using: 1) Paths, 2) Edges, 3) Districts, 4) Nodes, and 5) Landmarks.
Jean Gottman "Megalopolis" 1957. French geographer, study of urban region of the northeast.
Norman Krumholtz Cleveland City Planning Director '69 - '79. Equity Planning.
History of APA Founded in 1978 with the combining of American City Planning Institute (1917) with the American Society of Planning Officials (1934). 40,000 members, and 15,000 Certified planners.
Survey Response Rates for Mail, Telephone, and Personal Interview Mail: Usually 35% - 75%; Tele: About 95% in general population survey; Interview: Dropping; now about 65% in general population survey.
What are the three basic types of map projection conic, cylindrical, and planar.
US Census: "Urbanized Area" Urban nucleus of 50,000 or more people with core with a population density of 1,000 persons per square mile and may contain adjoining territory with at least 500 persons per square mile. in 2000, 68% of Americans lived in 452 urbanized areas.
US Census: "Urban Cluster" 2,500 but less than 50,000 persons and a population density of 1,000 persons per square mile. new for 2000 census. in 2000 11% of population.
Census Tract population between 2,000 and 8,000 people. It is the smallest area where all information is released.
Census Block is the smallest level at which the Census data is collected. There are typically 400 housing units per block
top ten fastest growing metropolitan areas between 2000 and 2010 1 Palm Coast, FL; 2 St. George, UT; 3 Las Vegas; 4 Raleigh-Cary, NC 5 Fort Myers, FL; 6. Provo-Orem, UT; 7. Greeley, CO; 8. Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX. 9. Myrtle Beach-North Myrtle Beach-Conway, South Carolina 10. Bend, Oregon
Daily trip ends generated per 1,000 square feet of general office space 11
Daily trip ends generated per single family residential dwelling 9.6
Daily trip ends generated per apartment unit 6.6
Daily trip ends generated per 1,000 square feet of shopping center space 43
Daily trip ends generated per 1,000 square feet of light industrial development 7
What LOS: Free flow traffic at or above the posted speed limit and motorists have complete mobility between lanes. Level of Service is A
What LOS: Reasonably free flow. Speeds are maintained, maneuverability within the traffic stream is slightly restricted. Level of Service is B
What LOS: Stable flow, at or near free flow. Ability to maneuver through lanes is noticeably restricted and lane changes require more driver awareness. Level of Service is C
What LOS: Approaching unstable flow. Speeds slightly decrease as traffic volume slightly increase. Freedom to maneuver within the traffic stream is much more limited and driver comfort levels decrease. Level of Service is D
What LOS: Unstable flow, operating at capacity. Flow becomes irregular and speed varies rapidly because there are virtually no usable gaps to maneuver in the traffic stream and speeds rarely reach the posted limit Level of Service is E
What LOS: Forced or breakdown flow. Every vehicle moves in lockstep with the vehicle in front of it, with frequent slowing required. Travel time cannot be predicted, with generally more demand than capacity. A road in a constant traffic jam Level of Service is F
Incremental Planning 1959, Charles Lindblom published the article "The Science of Muddling Through", which first introduces the concept of incrementalism.
Mixed Scanning Amitai Etzioni introduced the concept of mixed scanning as a compromise between the rational and incremental planning theories. Mixed scanning views planning decisions at two levels: the big picture and the small picture.
Transactive Planning 1973 John Friedmann published a book: Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning. While Advocacy Planning focused on working with specific groups in a community, the planner still serves as the technical expert that determines the alternatives.
Radical Planning 1987 John Friedmann, book: Planning in the Public Domain: From Knowledge to Action. Radical planning takes the power away from the government and gives it to the people. In this process, citizens get together and develop their own plans.
Created by: acperk