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AP1-Chapter 6


6 bone shapes 1. long bones 2. flat bones 3. sutural bones 4. irregular bones 5. short bones 6. sesamoid bones
long bones long and thin
where can long bones be found? arms (humorous ulna and radius), legs 9femur tibia and fibula), hands, feet, fingers, and toes
flat bones thin with parallel surfaces (sandwich with spongy bone in the middle)
where can flat bones be found? skull, sternum, ribs, and scapula
sutural bones small and irregular
where can sutural bones be found? between the flat bones of the skull
irregular bones complex shapes
where can irregular bones be found? spinal vertebrae and pelvic bones
short bones small and thick
where can short bones be found? ankle and wrist bones
sesamoid bones small and flat
where can sesamoid bones be found? inside tendons near joint of knees, hands, and feet
elevations and projections process and ramus
process projection or bump
ramus extension of a bone making an angle with the rest of the structure
processes formed where tendons/ligaments attach trochanter, tuberosity, tubercle, crest, line, spine
trochanter large rough projection
tuberosity smaller rough projection
tubercle small rounded projection
crest prominent ridge
line low ridge
spine pointed or narrow process
process formed for articulation with adjacent bones head, neck, condyle, trochlea, facet
head end of an epiphysis, separated from the shaft by a neck
neck narrow connection between the epiphysis and diaphysis
condyle rounded articular process
trochlea smooth grooved articular process shaped like a pulley
facet small flat articular surface
depressions fossa and sulcus
fossa shallow depression
sulcus narrow groove
openings foramen, canal, meatus, sinus, fissure
foramen passageway for blood vessels or nerves
canal channel/duct
meatus passageway through a bone
sinus chamber within a bone; usually filled with air
fissure elongated cleft or slit
anatomy of a long bone: diaphysis shaft
anatomy of a long bone: epiphysis wide part of the end (tip); articulates with other bones
anatomy of a long bone: metaphysis between shaft (diaphysis) and tips (epiphysis) meet
an example of a long bone femur
diaphysis compact bone; has a central space called the marrow cavity
epiphysis mostly spongy bone; covered with layer of compact bone (cortex)
flat bones sandwich of spongy bone; spongy bone between 2 layers of compact bone
an example of a flat bone parietal bone of skull
what type of tissue is bone? supportive connective
bone solid matrix of calcium salt deposits and collagen fibers
bone matrix canal organized around blood vessels
canaliculi pathway for blood vessels
periosteum outer surface; what you can see
matrix minerals 2/3 calcium phosphate; reacts with calcium hydroxide to form hydroxyapatite
hydroxyapatite withstand compression
matrix proteins 1/3 protein fibers (collagen); allows bone twisting and causes flexibility
bone cells 2% of mass; osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, osteoclasts
osteocytes mature bone cells; between layers (lamellae) of matrix in lacunae (central canal)
osteocyte function maintain protein and mineral content of matrix
osteoblasts immature cells that become osteocytes
osteoprogenitor cells mesenchymal stem cells that produce osteoblasts
what type of matrix do osteoblasts secrete? osteogenesis
where are osteoprogenitor cells located? inner layer of periosteum (endosteum)
what do osteoprogenitor cells assist in? fracture repair
what do osetoclasts do? break down bone
what are osetoclasts? giant cells that dissolve bone minerals (osteolysis)
what do osetoclasts cause? resorption
bone homeostatis bone building (osteoblasts) and bone recycling (osteoclasts) balancing
what happens if bone breaks down more than it can be built? become weak
what does exercise cause bone to do? build bone
another name for osteon haversian system
what is the osteon? basic building block of bone
how are osteons arranged? around the central canal (concentric lamellae)
another name for central canal haversian canal
what is within the central canal? blood vessels
another name for perforating canals? Volkmann canals
perforating canals run which way? perpendicular to the central canal
what do perforating canals do? carry blood vessels deep into bone and marrow
circumferential lamellae lamellae wrapped around the long bone
what does the circumferential lamellae hold together? the osteons
spongy bone has no what? osteons
name of the matrix of spongy bone trabeculae
trabeculae has no what? blood vessels
how do nutrients reach osteocytes? diffusion
where is red marrow found? space between the trabeculae
what does yellow marrow do? it is adipose; stores fat
weight bearing bones: femur transfers weight from the hip joint to the knee joint. which side is the tension on? lateral side
eight bearing bones: femur transfers weight from the hip joint to the knee joint. which side is the compression on? medial side
where is the periosteum? outside
where is the endosteum? inside
what does the periostem do? covers all bones
what is the periosteum made of? outer fibrous layer and inner cellular layer
another name for perforating fibers sharpey fibers
functions of the periosteum 1. isolates bone 2. circulatory and nerve supply of bone 3. growth and repair
endosteum incomplete (partial exposed) layer that lines the marrow cavity; cover trabeculae in spongy bone and lines central canal
what is contained in the endosteum? osteoblast, osteoclasts, and osteoprogenitor cells
what does the endostuem help with? bone growth and repair
what age does the human bone stop growing? 25
osteogenesis bone formation
ossification replacing other tissues with bone
calcification process of depositing calcium salts
when does calcification occur? during ossification of other tissues
what are the two forms of ossification? intramembranous and endochondral
endochondral ossification replaces what as bone? hyaline cartilage
how many steps is the endochondral ossification? 6
endochondral ossification step 1 of 6 enlarging condrocytes in center of cartilage (calcifying matrix)
endochondral ossification step 2 of 6 blood vessels grow around edges; perichondrium changes to osteoblasts (immature bone cells)-produces layer of superficial bone
endochondral ossification step 3 of 6 blood vessels enter cartilage brining fibroblasts that become osteoblasts; spongy bone develops an becomes primary ossification center
endochondral ossification step 4 of 6 remodeling creates a marrow cavity; bone replaces cartilage at metaphysis
endochondral ossification step 5 of 6 capillaries and osteoblasts enter epiphyses; this creates secondary ossification center
endochondral ossification step 6 of 6 epiphysis fills with spongy bone
step 6; in joint cavity articulation cartilage
step 6; at metaphysis epiphyseal cartilage
epiphyseal lines after puberty; show on xrays as line, epiphyseal cartilage disappears
appositional growth of endochondral ossification compact bone thickens and strengthens long bone with layers of circumferential lamellae around the bone
another name for intramembranous ossification dermal ossification because it occurs in dermal bones such as mandible, flat bones of skull, and clavicle
how many steps are involved in intramembranous ossification? 3
intramembranous ossification step 1 of 3 mesenchymal (stem cells) cells come together and differentiate into osteoblasts; begins at ossification center; develops projections called spicules
intramembranous ossification step 2 of 3 blood vessels grow into the area; spicules connect trapping in blood vessels
intramembranous ossification step 3 of 3 spongy bone develops and remodels into osteons of compact bone, periosteum, and marrow cavities (hardening)
FOP-fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva abnormal tissue that attacks other tissues and turns them to bone; very aggressive and debilitating
3 major sets of blood vessels nutrient artery and supply, metaphyseal vessels, and periosteal vessels
nutrient arteries supplies diaphysis
metaphyseal vessels supplies epiphyseal cartilage
periosteal vessels blood to superficial osteons of shaft
periosteum also contains lymph and nerves. what does each do? lymph-immunity; sensory nerves
bone remodeling recycling and renewing bone
what does remodeling involve? osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts
what happens to heavily stressed bones? become thicker and stronger
bone degeneration very quick
how much mass can be lost in a few weeks of inactivity? 1/3
effects of hormones and nutrition on bone normal bone growth and maintenance rely on nutrition and hormones
source of what two minerals are necessary for bone? calcium and phosphate salts
where is calcitrol made? kidney
what does calcitrol absorb? calcium and phosphorus in digestive track
what is calcitrol made from? vitamin D3
what is vitamin D3 called before it becomes calcitrol? chloecalciferol
what vitamin is required for collagen synthesis and stimulates osteoblast differentiation? vitamin C
vitamin c deficiency causing loss of bone mass and strength scurvy
this vitamin stimulates osteoblast activity vitamin A
these vitamins synthesize bone proteins vitamins K and B12
growth hormone and thrroxine stimulate what? bone growth
estrogens and androgens stimulate what? osteoblasts
calcitonin and parathyroid hormone regulate what? calcium and phosphate levels
what causes gigantism? tumor on pituitary gland
what causes acromegally? epiphyseal cartilage closes and increased bone mass
marfan syndrome connective tissue disorder; tall/thin; plyable
what causes dwarfism? lack of growth hormone
what is the most abundant mineral in the body? calcium
what is calcium vital to? membranes, neurons, and muscle cells (especially cardiac cells)
what must happen to calcium ions in body fluids? must be closely monitored
how is homeostatis maintained? calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
where calcium is stored? bones
where calcium is absorbed? digestive track
where calcium is excreted? kidneys
what does parathyroid hormone(PTH) do? increase blood calcium levels; increase absorption of calcium and decrease calcium excretion
what does calcitonin do? decrease blood calcium levels; inhibits osteoclast activity (bone degrading), and increase calcium excretion at kidneys
where is the parathyroid? in parathyroid the neck
what secretes calcitonin? c cells (parafollier cells) in thyroid
what is a fracture? crack or break in bone
what are the 4 steps of bone fracture repair? 4 steps
step 1 of 4 of bone fracture repair: bleeding makes clot; bone cells in area die
step 2 of 4 of bone fracture repair: calluses stabilize break-external callus surrounds break and internal callus develops in marrow
step 3 of 4 of bone fracture repair: osteoblasts replace central cartilage of external callus with spongy bone
step 4 of 4 of bone fracture repair: osteoblasts and clasts remodel the fracture for up to a year; reducing calluses
what are the two types of fractures? closed (simple) and open (compound)
closed (simple) fracture internal and does not break skin; simple to treat
open (compound) fracture that project through the skin; infection and uncontrolled bleeding occurs
transverse fracture break at a right angle along long axis of bone
comminuted fracture shattering
what occurs with age? bone becomes thinner and more weak
osteopenia decrease bone mass; starts at 30 or 40 and percentage degrades per 10 years
osteoporosis severe bone loss that makes holes in bone; affects normal function over age 45
estrogens and androgens maintain what? bone mass
bone loss in women accelerates what? menopause
cancerous tissue release what? osteoclasts that degrade bone
cancerous produce what? severe osteoporosis -bone degrading
Created by: Lacey1



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