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Compatative anatomy


what are the three ways to trace muscles for homologies? nervous innervation,embryology,attachment similarity to bone,function
nerve innervation nerve"travels"with muscle over time
embryology looking at most basic form
attachment to similar bone as bone shifts muscle goes with it
muscle function move bone,source of heat via mitochondria,keeping internal organs functioning,muscles in abdominal region restrict a space,help fight gravity,electric generation in electric eels, adds another layer of protection
striated muscle long and attach to bones with many muscle fibers.skeletal muscle.voluntary
smooth muscle blood vessels/stomach.internal organs.involuntary
cardiac muscle heart.anastemosis and intercalated disks
anastemosis the cells arent perfectly linear;they branch
intercalated disks helps heart muscles work on the same pace via gap junctions.
what are the 3 parts to sheaths? they are on skeletal muscle.epimyseum,perimyseum,endomyseum.all 3 are continous on a muscle.
epimyseum outer layer.wraps whole entire muscle.
perimyseum middle layer.around fasicles, attach individual muscles.
endomyseum goes around each individual muscle cell.
tendons at the very bottom of the epimyseum,peromyseum,endomyseum.aponeurosis is a sheet like tendon.
muscle on a microscopic level sarcomere(individual contracting bands).made of actin-myosin(allow contractions)
naming muscles name for direction the fibers run(external obliques).size(vastus).location/position(vastus lateralus).#divisions(tricep).origin/insertion (xiphi humeralis).action(Levator palatoquadrati).shape(tsapezius)
origin midline of body.proximal on limb.stable place that doesnt move a lot.need antagonistic pairs.
insertion distal,moveable
proximal helps what? speed
distal helps what? strength
axial embryology main trunk of body.divided into dorsal(epaxial)and ventral(hypaxial) on fish. these are from epimere
hypobranchial embryology below gill.modified hypaxial muscle that moves forward(epimere)
appendicular embryology appendages(epimere)
branchial embryology gills(epimere)
extrinsic eye muscles embryology move the eye(epimere)
cardiac embryology heart. (hypomoere)
smooth embryology arteries/veins.(hypomere of mesoderm
agnatha muscles axial are well subdivision into epaxial,hypaxial.segmentation(primitive trait).no appendicular.hypobranchials,branchials are poorly devveloped.mouth muscles are specialized
jawed fish muscles epaxial/hypaxial divisions(divided by lateral line) are segmented head to tail into myomeres.hypobranchial-pectoral girdle,branchial arches,jaw.appendicular-dorsal are abductors,ventral are adductors.
evolutionary trends axial muscles are less prominent.loss of segmentation of axials.remaining axial muscles more closely related to vert column.appendicular muscles larger,more diverse.branchial muscles repurposed.
amphibians axial muscles epaxial are segmented,unspecialized;dorsalis trunci
amphibians hypaxial muscles better developed,three groups:subvertebral(small,ventral flextion),rectus abdominis,lateral group(external oblique,interal oblique,transverse abdominal)
new muscles found in amphibians appendicular:pelvic is small,pectoral is more coomplex and larger,connection to head is gone therefore more space for muscle connection and moving head.
reptile and mammal epaxial from lateral to medial.Iliocostalis(ribs),longissimusdorsi(erect or spinae),transversospinalis(multifidi)
reptile and mammal hypaxial subvertebral(reduced),rectus abdominus(doesnt insert on pectoral girdle),lateral group(abdominal(same),chest;ribs(new)
tetrapod appendicular source of appendicular muscles is branchial(trapezium from cucullaris) and axial(serratus anterior)
from fish appendicular has what parts? dorsal mass,ventral mass, remember rotation of elbows and knees,for greater subdivision of tetrapods vs. fish muscles
dorsal mass latissimus dorsi,triceps(forelimb).sartorius,quads,vastus, gluteus(hindlimb).
ventral mass pectoralis,biceps(forelimb).adductor femoris,hamstrings,biceps femoris,gracilis(hind)
Branchial tetrapod derivatives.jaw muscles,1+2 are pharyngeal arches.ear muscles.shoulder,head ex:trapezius.larynx,throat muscles
cutaneous muscles under skin.rare in reptiles,most common in mammals,platysma of neck
platysma of neck diversities into facial muscles,move lips,ears.chewing communication.expressions
specializations in flight supracoracoideus muscle and pectoralis muscle.the muscles are set up like a pully for a easy up stroke and powerful downstroke
supracoracoideus small muscle dorsal
pectoralis huge,originates on keel of sternum for powerful downstroke
Created by: ejohnson17
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