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Compatative anatomy

Appendicular skeleton

anterior pectoral girdle supporting pectoral fin or limb
posterior pelvic girdle supporting pelvic fin or limb
ostracoderms no paired appendages.pectoral "spikes","lobes","folds"(keep orientation in h2o).non skeleton associated with them.
what are the 2 theories for the origin of paired fins gill arch theory(not really) says that gills got modified but there is no evidence.fin fold theory says that flabs of tissue get bone associated with them.
placoderms first paired appendages.skeleton associated with them therefore true appendages."prints" of muscle therfore mobile(places for muscle attachment).bony or cartilage fin rays.
fin skeleton(bony fish) basal pterygiophores(proximal).radial ptergiophored.fin rays(distal)-ceratotrichia in shark.lepidotrichia in bony fish."trichia"-thread
fish girdles pelvicsmall- and not attached to vert.pectoral is large and attached to head.dermal components form directly as bone are the clavicle,cleithrum,supracleithrum,post-temporal.replacement bones(from cartilage precursors)are the coracoid,scapula,suprascapula
sarcopterygii basals and radials line up into the fin and homologies with tetrapod limbs are clear.muscles are no longer in bony wall.muscles extend down into the fin.
tetrapod pelvic girdle 3 bones,fused(innominate bone) invlude ilium,ischium,pubis.trend toward firmer attachment to vert column via sacrum.
tetrapod pectoral girdle dermal bone less important(lighter).replacement bone(endochondral) more important.connection of pectoral girdle to skull is broken leads to cervical vert.
trend early appendicular skeleton is dermal.increase in subdermal elements;loss of dermal bone.ex humans only have one dermal bone in appendicular skeleton(clavicle)
fish appendages uniform because they only swim.varied number of bone in limb.
tetrapod appendages varied function.uniform structure(same bones).
fish to amphibians tiktaalik to labyrinodont.fins to limbs.amphibians have weak limbs,splayed to side.lateral swimming movements.
reptiles stronger limbs and girdles.most have splayed stance.some have legs under body(rotate elbow to increase stride)-synapsid,thecodonts,dinosaurs
birds and mammals specialization birds(fly,swim,run),fast running,reduction of digits,bears are plantigrade.
tetrapod trends reduction in number of limb elements(frogs fused radioulna,tibiofibular;birds tibiotarsus,loss of digits in deer,horse,rhino).disproportionate lengthening of limb elements(bat fingers,horse foot).
sub axial flexion limbs held more under the body then splayed to the side
alteration of foot does what? lengthens limb
plantigrade heal,wrist touch ground.primitive:humans and bears.
digitigrade walk with heal and wrist above ground:cat and dog
unguligrade walk on toe tips.can be even or odd deer(2).
perissodactyl horse and rhino.odd #
artiodactyl deer.even #
evolution of flight to help escape predators,to help catch prey,move efficiently,free hind legs for use as weapons,to gain access to new food sources or an unoccupied niche.**3 separate lineages
Created by: ejohnson17
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