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Compatative anatomy

axial skeleton

neural spine most dorsal,muscle attachment
neural arch protects spinal cord
neural canal contains nervous tissue
hemal arch blood vessels go through
hemal spine most ventral
centrum amphicoelous-biconcave spool"both hollow".few lateral processes.fish lateral flexion.
centrum for land animals stronger,flatter(acoelous).transverse processes for muscle attachment.zygapophyses-prevent torsion(cranial/caudal).disconnect from head to increase neck mobility.connect to pelvis to increase stability.
amphibians 1 cervical vert(atlis).1sacral vert.many trunk vert.zygapophyses.transverse processes
vert regions first seen in reptiles.cervical(neck),thoracic(ribs),lumbar (lower back), sacral(pelvis), caudal(tail).
reptiles cervical(atlas,axix,others).thoracic(have ribs for negative pressure breathing(enlarge thoratic cavity)),lumbar-no ribs,but they have specialized lumbar for increased flexability. sacral-2 or 3.caudal-many for balance and locomotion.
birds 15-20 cervical vert(long flexable neck).specialized synsacrum for pelvic support-fusion of trunk and sacral vert.w/pelvic girdle,good for bipedal.few caudal vert.
mammals cervical-7 vert(few exceptions).thoratic.lumbar.sacral are the fused sacrum(3-5 vert).caudal.loss of hermal arches ventrally.chevron bone is free floating remnant of hemal arch.
Created by: ejohnson17