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Compatative anatomy

cranial skeleton

chondrocranium always present,cartilage or bony(depends on vert)(early=more cartilage).primitive braincase,sense capsules.ex;occipital and ethmoid.protects brain*shark is atypical=totally cartilage
embryology of chondrocranium notochord(landmark),occipital arch,parachordal cartilage,trabeculae,sense capsules(otic,optic,olfactory).chondrocranium= neurocranium
which verts retain non-ossified chondrochranium? agnathans,early placoderms,chondrichthyes.all others have some degree of ossification(bony fish(portions)and mammals(entirely)).Cartilage->bony
slpanchnocranium always present,cartilage or bone,embryology:primitive pharyngeal arches.ex;gills,jaw,jaw support,ear ossicles,larynx.
early slanchnocranium pharyngeal bars are generalized for feeding and gas exchange
tetrapod splanchnocranium gills no longer for gas exchange.remodel skeleton and muscles.ex;tongue support and vocal apparatus
gill slits of early verts up to 15 slits
gills slits of jaw verts 5 or 6 slits
splanchnocranium consists of what arches? branchial arch3 through 7.
what are the 5 basic arches that support gills? pharynobranchial,epibranchial,ceratobranchial, hypobranchial,basilbranchial
arch 1 mandibular arch.with 2 components;palatoquadrate(upper jaw) and mandibular cartilage(meckel's)(lower jaw)
arch 2 hyoid arch,basic elements(dorsal to ventral)are hyomandibula,ceratohyal,basihyal.hyoamndibula only part incorporated into skull as jaw support,ceratohyal for tongue support.
hyostylic support by hypmandibula(arch2) only sharks
amphistylic support by hyomandibula and direct connection to brain case via ligament to orbital process.sharks and bony fish
autostylic no support by hyomandibula,only a direct connection to skull placoderms;modern tetrapods
formation of hyoid arch not associated with formation of jaws.placoderms had jaw,but arch 2 remained branchial
dermatocranium solid plates covering the chondrocranium and brain.early fish have heavy dermal armor(trend toward reductors),major reduction in dermal roofing bones in mammals.cyclostomes(living agnathans) and chondricthyes lack dermatocranium.
agnatha-ostracoderms chondrocranium of cartilage,dermatocranium(shell/skin), splanchnocranium-all arches are branchial
agnatha-cyclostomes chondrocranium of cartilage,no dermatocranium,splanchnocranium where all arches are branchial
placoderm skulls chondrocranium-cartilaginous,becoming partly ossifies.dermatocranium-heavy dermal armor,large plates.splanchnocranium:arch1-jaws are autostylic.arch 2-7 are branchial
chondroichthyes skulls chondrocranium-cartilaginous(specialized).dermatocranium- lost(no dermal bone).splanchnocranium:arch1(jaws),arch2(jaw support no longer branchial,hypostylic or amphistylic),arch3-7 are branchial
osteichthyes skulls chondrocranium-well ossified.dermatocranium-dermal bone covers cartilage;locks in skull attachment to pectoral girdle.splanchnocranium:arch 1 jaws are hinged between quadrate/articular.arch2jaw support is parallelshark evolution(hyo/amphi).3-7branchial
amphibians skulls has chondrocranium.dermatocranium w/loss of operculum/reduction of bones.splanchnocranium:arch1 jaw hinge quadrate/articular and only autostylic.arch2 hyomandibula=columella,rest of arch is hyoid for tongue support.3-7 renovated for larynx
reptile and bird skulls has chondrocranium.dermatocranium has three options(anapsid,diapsid,synapsid). splanchnocranium(similar to amphibians)-arch 1jaw hinge with(quadrate/articular)autostylic.arch2- hyomandibula=columella rest is hyoid.arch3-7 modified for larynx
anapsid no temporal fenestra.turtles
diapsid 2 temporal fenestra.lizards,snakes,birds,crocodiles
synapsid 1 temporal fenestra.mammal like reptiles
secondary palate pleycosaurs vs.mammals.breathing while eating is important for endotherms because they need to maintain homeostasis therefore need more o2. turtles are in between where it has a partial one.
mammal skulls chondrocranium is present(heptmoid,occipital bone).dermatocranium w/large temporal fenestra,weight reduction.secondary palate complete-so can breath while eating.
mammal splanchnocranium arch1-jaw,hinge is temporal(squamosal)/dentary.quadrate=incus. articular=malleus.arch2-columella is now of arch2 is hyoid.arch 3-7 are larynx and trachea.
mammal ear ossicles distinguishing characteristic. incus-quadrate(arch1).malleus=articular(arch1).stapes-collumella(arch2-hyoid mandibula)
Created by: ejohnson17



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