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Compatative anatomy


Functions of integument Protection from abrasion,mechanical injury,infection,uv radiation;regulate h20;heat transfer(blood transfusion to heat/cool body);color;respiratory gas exchange;sense reception
epidermis(basic) new,surface,cellualr,ectoderm,evolutionary variety
dermis(basic) older,deep,fibers and some cells,mesoderm(epimere),uniform(some bone variety)
evolutionary themes development of dermal bone(loos of bone later),degree of specialization of epidermis increases(keratinized stratum coreneus), degree of development of skin glands(increases)*from past to present
dermal shell of bony plates dentin layer on outside(hard material), spongy bone in middle(lattice-like),lamellar(latin-sheet) bone(dense layers)
dermis of other Agnatha secondary loss of dermal bone=no scales
placoderm integument smaller,thicker plates=armor.denticles(enamel spines)(latin=little tooth).dentin.spongy.lamellar
cartilaginous fish dermal bone absent(dentin,spongy,lamellar),tiny placoid scale(denticle only),tough,sand papery skin.**this is why shark skulls are chondrocranium
bony fish denticle absent.retain deeper layers,especially lamellar,cycloid scale(dermal),ctenoid scale(dermal),ganoid scale(dermal and thick coat of enamel)
dermal elements of early bony fish scales,dermatocranium,pectoral girdle(clavicle,cleithrum,supracleithrum,past temporal(ventral to dorsal)),operculum(gill cover)
dermal elements of other vertebrates clavicle,osteoderms in crocodiles(latin-bone skin),carapace and plastron in turtles(scute-epidermal),armadillo shell,chromatophores in dermis of fish,amphibians and reptiles
epidermal seal cuticle,mucoid coat,keratinized stratum corneum
cutile continuous, non living material secreted by epidermis(found in larvae)(acellular-non living)
mucoid coat glycoprotein;only in aquatic vert
keratinized stratum corneum outer most layer of epidermis, some amphibians(started it),lots in reptiles,birds,mammals(amniotes)-good seal in dry air,keratin protein in surface cell layers,mainly in amniotes=terrestrial
epidermal scales and modifies scales found in who? reptiles(first appreared),birds with unmodified sclaes on legs and feet and modified scales are feather(homology),mammals with unmodified scales on tail(beaver,rat)(rodents) and hair is new structure not just modified scales
epidermal hair invagination into the skin(sinks down into the skin)
epidermal claws,nails,hooves reptiles developed first, modified later
are horn sheath and antler velvets epidermal or dermal? epidermal
epidermal examples rattle snakes(older the snake longer the rattle),bird beaks,whale baleen,ischial callosities, tori,skin glands(sink down into dermis(mucous glands,poison pads,sebaceous glands,sweat glands,scent glands,mammary glands),teeth are a combination
Created by: ejohnson17