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Chapter 19

Section 2 Nonspecific defenses

QuestionAnswer
____ defenses are present at birth, provide a defense capability known as nonspecific resistance nonspecific defenses
___ keep hazardous organisms and materials outside the body. physical barriers
_____ is the destruction of abnormal cells by NK cells in peripheral tissues immunological surveillance
____ are chemical messengers that coordinate the defense against viral infections interferons
___ is a system of circulating proteins that assist antibodies in the destruction of pathogens complement
____ is a localized, tissue level response that limits the spread of an injury of infection inflammatory response
first line of cellular defense phagocytes
____ abundant mobile and quick to phagocytize cellular debris or invading bacteria neutrophils
____ less abundant than neutrophils, phagocytize foreign compounds or pathogens that have been coated wish antibodies eosinophils
___ are permanent residents of specific tissues and organs and are scattered among connective tissues. fixed macrophages
____ travel throughout body, go to site of injury by migrating through adjacent tissues or by recruitment form the circulating blood free macrophages
phagocytes may be attracted to or repelled by chemicals in the surrounding fluids, a phenomenon called ___ chemotaxis
the constant monitoring of normal tissues by NK cells is called immunological surveillance
the plasma membranes of cancer cells generally contain unusual proteins called ___ tumor-specific antigens
proteins called ____ travel through the cytoplasm toward the cell surface and released through exocytosis and diffuse across a narrow gap separating NK cell from its target cell. The target cell can no longer maintain its internal environment and _____ perforins, disintegrates
Which statement is most accurate regarding immunological escape? Cancer cells often mutate and can sometimes avoid detection by NK cells.
___ small proteins released by activated lymphocytes and macrophages, and tissue cells infected with virus interferons
_____ slow spread of viral infections and stimulate the activities of macrophages and NK cells interferons
_____ are chemical messengers released by tissue cells to coordinate local activities. It is a type of "interferon" cytokines
___ interferons are produced my cells infected with viruses. They attract and stimulate NK cells and enhance resistance to viral infection Alpha
___ interferons, secreted by fibroblasts, slow inflammation in a damaged area Beta
____ interferons, secreted by T cells and NK cells, stimulate macrophage activity Gamma
most rapid and effective activation of the complement system occurs though the _____ classical pathway
____ begins when several complement proteins, notably properdin, interact in the plasma properdin
the alternative pathway is important in the defense against ____, ____, and ____ bacteria, parasites, virus-infected cells
____ pathway ends with the conversion of an inactive complement protein to an activated form that attaches to the cell wall classical
the ____ pathway begins when one of the complement proteins attaches to antibody molecules already bound to their specific antigen classical
____ is a process where coating of complement proteins and antibodies attracts phagocytes and makes target easier to engulf opsonization
damaged cells release prostaglandins, proteins, and potassium ions
The changes in the ____ environment trigger the process of inflammation interstitial environment
mast cells release heparin and histamine
circulating proteins called ____ can reset the temperature thermostat in the hypothalamus and raise body temperature pyrogens
Created by: btuehara