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68C Ch.15 Ph.1 T.7

Hole's Essentials of A&P Chapter 15: Digestion and Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
Assimilation changing absorbed substances(nutrients) into chemically different forms for use by cells
Absorption movement of nutrients, from inside intestines into circulating fluids of the body
Digestion process of altering chemical and physical composition of food so that it may be absorbed
Mechanical digestion process of breaking food down into smaller pieces, mixing them with digestive juices without altering the chemical composition
Which organs of the digestive system make up the Alimentary Canal? Mouth, pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine, Rectum, Anus
Which organs of the digestive system make up the Accessory organs? Salivary organs, teeth, tongue, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Muscular, irregular tube that is opened at both ends. Passes through the ventral cavity. Alimentary Canal
Name the four layers of the Alimentary Canal 1.Mucosa 2.Submucosa 3.Muscularis 4.Serosa
Peristalsis propelling movements, ring of muscle contracts then relaxes causing mechanical breakdown of food
Provide moisture and lubrication, allows organs within abdominal cavity to slide freely against one another Serous fluid
Forms roof of the mouth, divided into hard and soft, prevents choking Palate
Prevents food or liquids from entering nasal cavities Uvula
At what age do deciduous and permanent teeth arise? 6 months of age, 6 yrs of age
Secrete saliva, Amylase, stimulated by sight, smell, taste, or thought of food Salivary Glands
Amylase begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates, moisten and binds food particles
Three major Pairs of salivary glands 1.Parotid 2.Submandibular 3.Sublingual
Esophagus connects pharynx with the stomach, descends posterior to the trachea, esophageal hiatus
Lower esophageal(cardiac) sphincter prevent stomach contents from re-entering esophagus
Three areas of the stomach 1. Fundus 2.Body 3.Pylorus
Main functions of the stomach Begins SECOND phase of digestion(breakdown of proteins), sends CHYME to small intestine
Gastric Juices contains hydrochloric acid and enzymes, seeing, smelling, tasting food stimulates increased production
Activated by HCl, forms pepsin- responsible for protein digestion in stomach turning bolus into chyme Pepsinogen
Extends the length of pancreas, connects duodenum at major dudenum papillae Pancreatic duct
What are the enzymes within Pancreatic juice 1.Pancreatic Amylase(carbohydrates) 2.Pancreatic Lipase(fats) 3.Trypsin,Chymotrypsin,Carboxypeptidase(proteins)
Stores glycogen, synthesis of plasma proteins, excretion of bilirubin, blood detoxification Liver functions
Emulsification of fats and elimination of cholesterol from the body, enhances absorption of fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K, stored in the gallbladder Bile
Gallbladder Cholecytokinin of CCK, stimulate contraction of gallbladder, main function-stores bile
Three sections of the Small Intestine 1.Duodenum 2.Jejunum 3.Ileum
Completes digestion, suspend from posterior abdominal wall, circular folds called plicae, millions of villi, nerve fiber transmits impulses stimulate or inhibit villus activities Small Intestine
Villi increase surface area, blood capillaries, lymphatic vessels
Undigested and unabsorbed food, absorbs water and electrolytes, forms/stores feces Large Intestine
Ascending colon begins at cecum travels upward, becomes heptic flexure
Transverse colon extends across front of abdomen, becomes splenic flexure
Which vitamins are synthesized by the large intestine vitamin K, B12, Thiamine, Riboflavin
Incontinence lack of voluntary control of defecation; inability to retain feces
Enemas solution into colon via anus, limit use
Created by: ajwildasin30