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AP1-Chapter 5

the integumentary system

the integument is the _____ system in the body. largest
what percentage of body weight is the integument? how much surface area does the integument cover? 16; 1.5-2 meters squared
what are the two parts of the integument? 1. cutaneous membrane (skin) 2. accessory structures
what are examples of accessory structures? nails, hair, glands
what are the two parts of the cutaneous membrane? (skin) superficial epidermis (epithelial tissues) and the inner dermis (connective tissue)
where do accessory structures originates from? the dermis
true or false: the epidermis has a blood supply false; gets blood through diffusion of blood in vessels in the circulatory system
what is another term for subcutaneous layer? hypodermis
what type of tissue makes up the hypodermis? loose connective; below dermis
where is the location used for many injections? subcutaneous layer; hypodermis (hypodermic injections)
what type of cells are in the epidermis? avascular stratified squamous epithelium
cells of the epidermis are referred to as ____________. keratinocytes
keratinocytes contain are large amount of _________. keratin
keratinocytes are the most abundant cells in the __________. epidermis
how many layers of skin does THIN skin have? 4
how many layers of skin does THICK skin have? 5
what is the extra layer that only is seen in thick skin called? the stratum lucidum
what are the 5 strata of the epidermis? C,L,G,S,G superficial to deep: -corenum -lucidum -granulosum -spinosum -germinativum
what type of cells does the germ layer have? stem cells or basal cells
what 2 structures does the basale layer have? epidermal ridges and dermal papillae
what kinds of cells does the basale have? merkel cells and melanocytes
what occurs in the spinosum layer aka "the spiny layer" cells continue to divide
what type of cells are in the spinosum layer? langerhan cells
what are langerhan cells used for? immune response
what happens in the granulosum layer aka "the grainy layer" the cells stop dividing and start making keratin and kerotohylain
which layer is only found in thick skin? lucidum
what is the corneum layer? the exposed surface; keratinized cells
how often is the corneum replaced? every 2 weeks
skin life cycle: it takes __-__ days for a cell to move from the germ layer to the corneum; total of __-__ days 7-10; 15-30
what are the two types of perspiration? insensible and sensible
what is insensible perspiration? fluid lose through evaporation; can not be seen
what is sensible perspiration? water excreted be swat glands; can be seen
dehydration results in damage to the ______ layer. corneum
dehydration results in submission in a ________ solution hypertonic
hydration results in submission in a ______ solution. hypotonic
dehydration causes burns and blisters
hydration causes wrinkles and stretching skin
what does skin color depend on? the pigments carotene and melanin; blood circulation
carotene is... a yellow-orange pigment; found in vegetables
melanin is... yellow-brown/black pigment; produced by melanocytes; stores in melanosomes
skin color depends on melanin ___________ not the number of melanocytes production
if you have more melanin, you skin will be ___________. darker
if you lack melanin, your skin will be _______. lighter
what happens to an albino? their immune system attacks the melanocytes
what does melanin do? protects skin from sun damage
oxygenated red blood cells contribute to skin color. blood vessels dilate causing skin to _______. redden
oxygenated red blood cells contribute to skin color. blood flow decreasing causes skin to become ____. pale
cyanosis blush skin; caused by severe reduction in blood flow
jaundice build-up of bile
what color does one who suffers from jaundice? yellow
where is bile produced? liver
Addison's disease pituitary gland secrets large amount of ACT
what occurs to one who suffers from Addison's? skin darkens
vitiligo loss of melanocytes; anitbodies attack normal melanocytes
what occurs to the skin of someone suffering from vitiligo? loss of color
what is cholecalciferol? vitamin D3; produces by epidermis
the liver and kidneys convert vitamin d3 into what? calcitriol
what does calcitriol do? absorbs calcium and phosphorus
what can a lack of vitamin d3 result in? rickets (bow-legged)
epidermal growth factor (EGF) powerful growth factor; used for skin grafts
dermis has two components, what are they? outer papillary layer and deep reticular layer
papillary layer is made of ____________ tissue. areolar
papillary layer has ________ _________. dermal papillae (projections between epidermal ridges)
reticular layer is made of _____ _________ _________ tissue. dense irregular connective
reticular layer contains _______ _______, _______ ______ and ______ ________. blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerve fibers
reticular layer contains _____ and _____ ______. collagen and elastic fibers
reticular layers contains _____ _____ ______. connective tissue proper
dermatitis inflammation of the papillary layer
what does "itis" mean? inflammation
3 characteristics of dermis strong(collagen fibers) elastic (elastic fibers) flexible (turgor)
sagging and wrinkles are caused by what? reduction in elastin
4 causes of sagging/wrinkles: dehydration, age, hormonal changes, UV exposure
what is the worst type of skin cancer? melanoma
what causes stretch marks? thickened tissue and fibers caused by surpassing elastic limits
excessive skin stretching can be caused by what two things? pregnancy and weight gain
cleavage lines are caused by what two things in the dermis? collagen and elastic fibers
cleavage lines are arranged in a what? parallel bundle and resist force in ONE direction
cleavage lines establish a pattern. a parallel cut heals ____. well
cleavage lines establish a pattern. a horizontal cut heals ____. not well; leaves scars
what are the two types of arteries? cutaneous plexus and papillary plexus
cutaneous plexus network of arteries along the reticular layer
papillary plexus capillary network of small arteries along the papillary layer
what are the two types of veins? venous plexus and contusion
venous plexus capillary return deep to papillary layer
contusion damage to blood vessels resulting in "black and blue" bruising
what are decubitus ulcers? bed sores
what happens that causes a bed sore? compression of blood vessels due to not moving over a period of time
tactile disks monitor what? merkel cells
tactile corpuscles are sensitive to what? light touch
lamellated corpuscles are sensitive to what? deep pressures and vibrations
what is another name for hypodermis? subcutaneous layer
is the subcutaneous layer part of the integument? no
subcutaneous layer is made of what? elastic areolar and adipose tissue
subcutaneous layer has few what? few capillaries and no vital organs
hypodermic injections are stuck into the subcutaneous layer by using what? hypodermic needles
what is adipose tissue? fat
what are accessory structures of the integument? hair, hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands and nails
hair is located all over the body except for what 4 places? palms of hands, soles of feet, lips, and external genitalia
accessory structures: arrector pili involuntary smooth muscle; causes hair to stand up; causes "goosebumps"
accessory structures: sebaceous glands lubricate hair; control bacteria
regions of the hair: root lower part; attached to integument
regions of the hair: shaft upper part; not attached
how hair grows? papilla contains capillaries and nerves; bulb produces matrix
matrix layer of dividing cells; pushes hair up and out of skin
hair growth cycle: growing hair attached to matrix
hair growth cycle: club hair not growing; attached to inactive follicle
new hair growth cycle follicle becomes active; makes new hair; club hair is shed
two types of hair vellus and terminal
vellus hair soft/fine hair; covers body surface
another name for vellus hair? peach fuzz
terminal hair havily pigmented; head, eyebrows, eyelashes (other parts after puberty: armpits, pubic area, limbs)
how is hair color determined? melanocytes; genes also
which type of glands are exocrine glands? sebaceous glands
sebaceous glands are _________ holocrine (cell explodes on follicle/skin)
sebaceous glands secrete what? sebum
what is sebum? lubricates/protects epidermis; inhibits bacterial growth; contains carbs/lipids/other things
what are the two types of sebaceous glands? simple branched alveolar and sebaceous follicles
simple branched alveolar associated with hair follicles
sebaceous follicles discharge directly onto skin
sebaceous follicles are the source of seborrheic dermatitis...what is this? dandruff
what are the two types of sweat (sudoriferous) glands? apocrine and merocrine
apocrine sweat glands discharge on hair follicles
apocrine sweat gland secretions sticky/cloudy
merocrine sweat glands discharge directly onto skin surface
merocrine sweat gland secretions watery
another name for merocrine sweat glands eccrine glands
which type of land produces odor? apocrine
where are apocrine (odor) secretions found? armpits, nipples, groins
what do myoepithelial cells do? squeeze secretions onto skin surface
functions of merocrine sweat cools skin; excretes water/electrolytes; flushes out microorganisms
mammary glands produce milk
ceruminous glands protects eardrum and produce cerumen (ear wax)
control of glands: autonomic nervous system controls sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands; all over body
control of glands: merocrine sweat glands controlled independently; in local area
homeostasis can be reached using this thermoregulation (sweating)
what are nails made of? dead cells packed with keratin
nail production occurs deep in the epidermal fold near the bone called the nail root
structure of the nail: nail body visible part; covers nail bed
structure of the nail: lunula pale crescent at the base of the nail
structure of the nail: sides of the nails lateral nails (grooves) lateral nail (folds)
structure of the nail: skin beneath the free edge of the nail hyponychium
eponychium cuticle
repair of localized injuries to the skin: step 1 bleeding; mast cells trigger inflammation response
repair of localized injuries to the skin: step 2 scab
inflammatory repsonse macrophanges clean area; fibroblasts and endothelial cells come in and make granulation tissue
repair of localized injuries to the skin: step 3 scar tissue
repair of localized injuries to the skin: step 4 keloid (raises area) forms
effects of aging everything decreases
Created by: Lacey1



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